駭客入侵 歐洲碳排放交易系統癱瘓 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

駭客入侵 歐洲碳排放交易系統癱瘓

建立於 2011/01/25
摘譯自2011年1月20日ENS比利時,布魯塞爾報導;張桂芳編譯;蔡麗伶審校

北約克郡的燃煤電廠。圖片來自: FreeFoto.com。歐盟執委會19日晚間表示,其碳排放交易平臺安全防護網一再被入侵,導致多數歐洲市場碳排放現貨合同交易停擺近一個星期。

歐盟的碳排放配額EUA和聯合國的碳減排CER每日期貨交易皆受到波及。估計停頓至少將持續至1月26日。

被歐盟27個成員國賦予行政權的執委會表示:「有鑑於過去兩個月來各國交易系統在註冊程序上不斷出現安全漏洞的考量,因而採取此過渡性措施。」

納斯達克NASDAQ OMX歐洲商品、總部位於巴黎的BlueNext、總部位於倫敦的LCH.Clearnet和ICE期貨交易所都暫停EUA與CER的合約交易。

但在德國的歐洲能源交易所EEX,和其負責結算的分支歐洲商品結算所ECC20日在一份聲明中說,儘管最近駭客對數個國家的排放權交易登記處展開攻擊,然而他們的交易狀況「又再一次證明是既安全又可靠的。」

執委會19日表示,目前發現捷克有一價值7萬歐元(約合 940萬美元)的碳排放配額帳戶被盜領。同時,奧地利、愛沙尼亞、希臘和波蘭的帳戶也在最近幾個星期内遭到駭客入侵。

歐盟排放交易制度是世界上效率最高的溫室氣體總量管制與交易系統。該系統把定額的EUAs分配給工廠和發電廠,並提供這些配額至市場上交易,進而使得歐盟約有近一半的碳排放量得到控管。

根據京都議定書,歐洲國家按法律在2012年底前,必須將其溫室氣體排放量減少至1990年的水平,平均達5.2%以下。而歐盟排放交易制度即是完成此目標的一種手段。

早在2010年12月,歐盟執委會氣候行動網的赫高(Connie Hedegaard)呼籲制訂更嚴密的歐盟碳交易市場監管制度,以防堵網絡安全漏洞。

她還表示:「過去幾年,市場規模儼然已大到成為有心人士行使詐欺行為的標的。因此,隨著市場日益成熟與擴大,如何持續有效適當的管理監督這個市場至為重要。」

執委會表示,官員們下周 「將繼續與各國當局在解除暫停登記的措施前,一同對制定最低安全措施做出決議。」

Hackers Force Halt to Most European Carbon Emissions Trading
BRUSSELS, Belgium, January 20, 2011 (ENS)

Most of Europe's carbon markets have suspended trading in their spot emissions contracts for a week after the European Commission said late Wednesday that the security of its carbon trading platform had been breached repeatedly.

Daily futures of the European Union emissions allowance, EUA, and the United Nations' carbon emission reduction, CER, are affected by the suspension, which will last until at least January 26.

"This transitional measure is taken in view of recurring security breaches in national registries over the last two months," said the Commission, the executive branch of government for the European Union's 27 member states.

NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe, Paris-based BlueNext, London-based LCH.Clearnet and ICE Futures Europe are among the traders that have suspended the two contracts.

But in Germany, the European Energy Exchange, EEX, and the clearing subsidiary European Commodity Clearing, ECC, said in a statement today that their operations "have proven again reliable and secure despite recent hacking attacks on diverse national emissions trading registries."

The Commission said Wednesday that emissions allowances worth €7 million (US$9.4 million) had been taken illegally from an account in the Czech Republic. Accounts in Austria, Estonia, Greece and Poland also were hacked in recent weeks, the Commission said.

The EU Emissions Trading System is the world's most effective carbon dixoide cap-and-trade system, limiting roughly half the European Union's CO2 emissions by allocating a fixed quota of EUAs to factories and power plants and providing a market for trading in these allowances.

Under the Kyoto Protocol, European nations are legally bound to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 5.2 percent below 1990 levels by the end of 2012. The EU Emissions Trading System is one means of accomplishing that goal.

Back in December 2010, European Commissioner for Climate Action Connie Hedegaard called for better regulatory oversight of the EU carbon market to prevent security breaches.

"Over the last years, the market has reached a size which makes it a potential target of fraudulent practices," Hedegaard said. "Therefore, as the market matures and grows further, it is critical that it continues to be subject to appropriate and effective regulatory oversight."

The European Commission said that during the coming week, its officials "will proceed to determine together with national authorities what minimum security measures need to be put in place before the suspension of a registry can be lifted."

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導