僅存58隻大象 馬拉威傳將焚象牙庫存 | 環境資訊中心

僅存58隻大象 馬拉威傳將焚象牙庫存

2015年03月17日
摘譯自2015年3月12日ENS馬拉威,里郎威報導;李培福編譯;蔡麗伶審校

馬拉威反象牙。每年野生動物犯罪者為了象牙,殺了成千上萬的大象。3日,肯亞象徵性焚燒了15噸象牙,而馬拉威可能是下一個焚燒象牙的國家。

為摧毀象牙對盜獵者的經濟價值,肯亞總統Uhuru Kenyatta表示:「為了展現根除盜獵的決心,肯亞政府今年內應該要焚燒剩餘的象牙積儲。」

而全球已經蒐集超過7,000個連署,支持馬拉威抵制象牙交易。3月3日是世界野生動物日,不過因為剛好碰上馬拉威慶祝烈士節,野生動物日的慶祝活動將一直延續到3月18日。

跟上肯亞腳步 馬拉威將焚象牙庫存

馬拉威已經發起國家大象行動計畫,在停止象牙(Stop Ivory)、國際野生生物保護學會(WCS)、皇家動物防虐協會(RSPCA)及利隆圭野生動物信託(Lilongwe Wildlife Trust)的技術支援之下,由國家公園與野生生物部(Department of National Parks and Wildlife,DNPW)領導。

大象保護公民提案(Elephant Protection Initiative)近期發表聲明,確認馬拉威已完成象牙庫存清點,以及政府焚燒象牙的意願。

國家公園與野生生物部執行長Brighton Kumchedwa,曾參加2014年倫敦國際野生動物走私會議(International Wildlife Trafficking Conference),幫助抑制野生動物犯罪。他表示,該部門正制定一項遵照這些會談的應對計畫。

數量銳減 馬拉威境內只剩58隻大象

Kumchedwa表示,根據大象資料庫(Elephant Database)的統計數據,盜獵已經讓卡松古國家公園(Kasungu National Park)的大象數量,由1980年代2千隻減少至現今估計58隻。

2015年2月,馬拉威加入其他20個國家,宣示嚴厲打擊野生動物犯罪,從那時到現在已完成顯著的進展。

馬拉威已經發起公開宣傳活動「停止野生動物犯罪(Stop Wildlife Crime)」、建立跨部門委員會以對抗野生動物犯罪,及實施暫時禁止國內象牙交易。

英國駐馬拉威高級官員Michael Nevin表示:「英國和其他國家已經關注到馬拉威對抗全球非法野生動物交易的承諾。」

官員Nevin表示:「馬拉威似乎不僅決心要保護國家資產,並且也決心成為2014年倫敦會議要求加緊國際努力的一份子。顯然還有很多需要完成,包括更多公眾參與、加強執法及嚴格解決貪腐問題。不過只要能證明承諾,馬拉威將會有其他友國的支持。」

打擊盜獵 落實倫敦宣言

按照聯合國毒品和犯罪問題辦公室(United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime)對抗野生動物和森林犯罪實施程序,馬拉威政府已承諾檢討國家野生動物政策與野生動物立法,及非法野生動物交易評估。

由於公眾壓力與執法機構間的區域和國際協同作用,目前司法系統將野生動物犯罪視為嚴重犯罪。最高紀錄,兇手被罰款金額超過1百萬馬拉威克瓦查,相當於2,340美元。若無法繳交罰金,罪犯一定要入監服刑。

例如,最近Dickson Mzinda因獵殺保育物種及持有槍械及彈藥被判罪。

馬拉威反象牙。

利隆圭資深治安法官Paul Chiotcha表示,他認為在他的裁決下判刑必須符合罪行與罪犯,對社會來說公平及對罪犯網開一面。

法官Chiotcha,判了Mzinda共4年,10個月苦力牢獄,他表示:「我認為他的人身自由無法被信任。如果將他釋放,顯然他將繼續犯下諸如此類的罪行。」

法官Chiotcha的裁決受到參席庭審的保育人士的贊同。

馬拉威稅務總局快反走私隊(Fast Anti-Smuggling Team)副經理Twambilire Sichali參加跨部門工作小組會議,她要求國家公園與野生生物部門,密切地更新透過協調與資訊共享落網罪犯的起訴進展。她表示,海關執行網路(Customs Enforcement Network)幫助打壓包含象牙等非法物品交易,這樣的更新將強化整體士氣。

Malawi Could Be Next to Torch Ivory Stockpile
LILONGWE, Malawi, March 12, 2015 (ENS)

Tens of thousands of elephants are killed each year by wildlife criminals for their ivory. Kenya commemorated World Wildlife Day on March 3 with a symbolic torching of 15 tonnes of ivory to destroy its economic value to poachers.

President Uhuru Kenyatta said, “In order to underline our determination to eradicate poaching, my government shall burn the rest of the stockpile within this year.”

Malawi could be next. Over 7,000 signatures have been collected in support of Malawi’s crackdown on the ivory trade, and the world is watching to see what Malawi will do.

World Wildlife Day was celebrated around the world on March 3, and events continued all last week, but due to the clash with Martyrs’ Day celebrations in Malawi it has been postponed until March 18.

Malawi has launched a National Elephant Action Plan, led by the Department of National Parks and Wildlife, DNPW, with technical support from Stop Ivory, the Wildlife Conservation Society, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and Lilongwe Wildlife Trust.

A recent announcement by the Elephant Protection Initiative, a new global funding partnership, confirmed Malawi’s completion of an ivory inventory and the government’s intention to burn its ivory stockpiles.

DNPW Director Brighton Kumchedwa, who attended the 2014 International Wildlife Trafficking Conference in London to help curb wildlife crime, said the agency is formulating a response plan following these talks.

The London declaration contains commitments for practical steps to end illegal trade in rhino horn, tiger parts and elephant tusks that fuels criminal activity worth over US$19 billion annually. It called for measures to eradicate markets for illegal wildlife products, ensure effective legal deterrents, strengthen law enforcement, and support sustainable livelihoods.

Kumchedwa said poaching has reduced Kasungu National Park’s elephants population from 2,000 in the 1980s to an estimated 58 animals today, according to the Elephant Database – devastating statistics from a conservation perspective.

Last February Malawi joined scores of other countries in a declaration to crack down on wildlife crime. Since then significant progress has been made.

A ‘Stop Wildlife Crime’ public awareness campaign has been launched, an inter-agency committee to combat wildlife crime has been established and a moratorium on domestic ivory trade has been imposed.

The government has undertaken a review of the national wildlife policy and wildlife legislation and an illegal wildlife trade assessment in accordance with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime toolkit on combating wildlife and forest crime.

Due to public pressure as well as local and international synergies among enforcement institutions, the judicial system is now treating wildlife offenses as serious crimes. Culprits are being fined record high amounts, up to MK1 million (US$2,340). Offenders in default have no choice but to serve their sentences in jail.

Dickson Mzinda, for example, recently was convicted of hunting protected species and possession of firearms and ammunition.

In his ruling, Lilongwe Senior Resident Magistrate Paul Chiotcha said in his judgment that the sentence must fit the crime and the convict, be fair to society and also have a face of mercy towards the offender.

“I am convinced that he is a person who cannot be trusted with his liberty. If released it’s clear he will continue to commit these kinds of offenses,” said Magistrate Chiotcha, who sentenced Mzinda to a total of four years, 10 months of prison with hard labor.

Chiotcha’s ruling was welcomed by conservationists who attended the trial.

Twambilire Sichali, Deputy Manager of Malawi Revenue’s Fast Anti-Smuggling Team, participates in the inter-agency task force meetings.

Sichali called for frequent updates from the Department of National Parks and Wildlife on the progress they are making in prosecuting offenders netted through coordination and information sharing. She said such updates will strengthen morale throughout the Customs Enforcement Network, which helps clamp down on illicit goods trading, including ivory.

British High Commissioner to Malawi Michael Nevin said, “Malawi’s commitment to the global fight against the illegal wildlife trade has been noticed in the UK and elsewhere.”

“There seems a determination not only to protect Malawi’s national assets, but also to be part of a stepped-up international effort that the 2014 London Conference called for. Obviously more needs to be done, including more involvement by the public, toughening law enforcement and seriously addressing corruption. But,” said Nevin, “if there is demonstrable commitment, then Malawi will have friends in support.”

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

作者

蔡麗伶(LiLing Barricman)

In my healing journey and learning to attain the breath awareness, I become aware of the reality that all the creatures of the world are breathing the same breath. Take action, here and now. From my physical being to the every corner of this out of balance's planet.