巴西亞馬遜雨林 2011年伐林率達歷史新低 | 環境資訊中心

巴西亞馬遜雨林 2011年伐林率達歷史新低

2011年12月13日
摘譯自2011年12月7日ENS巴西,巴西利亞報導;黃健強編譯;蔡麗伶審校

亞馬遜雨林空照圖,接近馬努斯島(Manaus),位於亞馬遜州的首都。(圖片提供CIFOR)巴西國家空間研究所(National Institute of Space Research,INPE)的資料顯示,從2010年8月至2011年7月,亞馬遜雨林的伐林率已降低11.7%,連續三年創下歷史新低。

從衛星照片上的分析,在12個月的時間內林木皆伐面積估計為6,238平方公里,使巴西的伐林率達到自1988年以來執行閥林監控措施之後的新低。

降低的數據顯示了巴西政府持續致力減少溫室氣體排放,而這也是每年全球氣候變遷協商會議中會討論到的議題,今年會議是在南非的德班市舉行。

亞馬遜雨林空照圖,接近馬努斯島(Manaus),位於亞馬遜州的首都。(圖片提供CIFOR)

2009年巴西通過法案要在2020年前降低溫室氣體計畫排放量到36.1%與38.9%之間。

降低伐林率是巴西溫室氣體減量策略的重要部分。官方統計預計如達到伐林減量的目標,將會使巴西的溫室氣體排放量減少24.7%以上。

針對INPE資料顯示亞馬遜河雨林皆伐量在過去兩個月內增加,巴西政府在2011年四月成立的一個特別小組,加強伐林監控和執行計畫。

自此巴西環境及再生自然資源協會(IBAMA)安排700位調查員到巴西的Mato Grosso州進行森林保育工作。IBAMA、巴西州立警察署、國家安全小組及部隊也加入打擊非法伐林的行列。

INPE伐林減量系統分析的衛星影像,再加上州政府警察署的協助,使IBAMA可建立準確且有效率地阻止非法伐林進行。

今年新增有八個高伐林率的地區,而該些地區現已在監控的範圍內。

巴西北部山區的亞馬遜雨林(圖片提供: Shirley Sekarajasingham)該特別小組已查獲了325輛貨車、72台推土機,以及62,000立方公尺的非法砍伐林木,並且禁止砍伐作業的土地達79,500公頃。

巴西環境署署長Izabella Teixeira日前在記者會上表示:「這代表在2011年初的時候,我們可以快速地處理亞馬遜地區非法伐木的問題。對抗非法伐木的任務會一直進行到2012年。」

在記者會上,巴西科學及技術創新部門的部長Aloizio Mercadante表示巴西計畫要在2012年11月發射新的衛星,來改善衛星監看亞馬遜伐林活動的準確度。

他表示:「目前我們使用的圖像解析度為250公尺,而新的衛星解析度可達5公尺。」

環境署表示亞馬遜雨林伐木量降低主要歸功於亞馬遜雨林伐林減量保育及控制的計畫,或稱為亞馬遜雨林合法採伐保育及控制行動法案(PPCDAM),係為整合的政府法令,結合強化的衛星監控,並實施地權規範,加上鼓勵永續伐林作業的方案的推行。

Teixeria表示,「加上13個政府機關支持協助,PPCDAM促使伐林量自2004年到2010年間,降低了76.8%。」

巴西政府防止伐林並保存巴西物種豐富森林的策略中,包含建立保育區。

根據今年初聯合國環境計畫提出的報告,全球生物多樣性展望,自2003年以來全世界總共700,000平方公里的保育區中有75%是位於巴西。

但巴西立法院6日通過了新的育林法案,將會減少河邊育林緩衝地帶的面積,並降低土地所有人必須保有的林木面積。

此法案中止了巴西自1934發佈後持續執行的育林法案。在今年5月國會下議院已批准此新法案。

德班市舉行的聯合國氣候會談中,前巴西環境署署長Marina Silva在場外表示森林保育係為阻止氣候變遷的一種方法,而此新法案將會削弱巴西在森林保育上的領導地位。

當南非德班市正舉行聯合國氣候會談時,綠色和平組織人士以樹的裝扮在當地進行示威(圖片提供:英國綠色和平組織)。「這個已通過的法案將會使巴西難以維持氣體排放的目標。」Silva在德班市像記者表示。她呼籲總統Dilma Rousseff否決這個新的育林法案。

在氣候會談中,綠色和平組織對新的育林法案表示抗議。國際環境組織表示巴西育林法案的修改將會使亞馬遜雨林面臨嚴重伐林的威脅,也將使巴西於2009年簽署同意會大幅減少二氧化碳排放量的承諾作出妥協讓步,該承諾書係由前總統Lula da Silva於哥本哈根的聯合國氣候會議中所簽署。

Brazil's Amazon Deforestation in 2011 Lowest on Record
BRASILIA, Brazil, December 7, 2011 (ENS)

 Deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon fell by 11.7 percent from August 2010 to July 2011, reaching the lowest rates ever recorded for the third consecutive year, according to data from the National Institute of Space Research, INPE.
Satellite images analyzed by INPE show that an estimated 6,238 square kilometers of forests were cleared in the 12-month period, bringing rates to their lowest since monitoring began in 1988.

The decrease represents Brazil's continued commitment to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and it comes during the annual global climate change negotiations taking place this year in Durban, South Africa.

In 2009, Brazil passed into law a commitment to cut its projected greenhouse gas emissions between 36.1 and 38.9 percent by 2020.

Deforestation reduction is a critical part of Brazil's strategy to reduce its emissions. Official calculations estimate that meeting deforestation reduction targets could cut Brazil's greenhouse gas emissions by up to 24.7 percent.

In April 2011, Brazil established a task force to strengthen deforestation monitoring and enforcement initiatives in response to INPE data that indicated an increase in Amazon clear-cutting over the previous two months.

Since then, the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources, IBAMA, has sent 700 inspectors to the state of Mato Grosso to enforce forest preservation efforts. IBAMA, the Federal Police, the National Security Force and the Army have joined forces to combat illegal logging.

Satellite images analyzed by INPE's near-real time deforestation detection system have enabled IBAMA, with support from the Federal Police, to set up precise and effective enforcement operations to halt illegal deforestation as it happens.

This year, eight new municipalities were added to the list of areas with the highest deforestation rates, and these are now subject to inspection.

The task force has apprehended 325 trucks, 72 bulldozers and 62,000 cubic meters of illegally cut timber and embargoed 79,500 hectares of land in the region.

In a press conference Monday, Brazilian Minister of Environment Izabella Teixeira said, "This achievement represents a strong victory and shows that we were capable of quickly responding to illegal deforestation in the Amazon region in the beginning of 2011."

Teixeira said the monitoring and fight against illegal deforestation will continue through 2012.

In November 2012, Brazil plans to launch a new satellite that will improve the accuracy of satellite deforestation monitoring in the Amazon, Brazilian Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation Aloizio Mercadante announced at Monday's news conference.

"At the present time, we can use images of 250 meters resolution; and the new satellite will allow us to analyze images of five meters resolution," he said.

The Environment Ministry says the drop in Amazon deforestation rates is a result of the Plan for Amazon Deforestation Prevention and Control, or PPCDAM, an integrated set of integrated government policies that combine enhanced satellite monitoring and enforcement operations with land tenure regularization, alongside initiatives to encourage sustainable activities in the region.

With the support of 13 government agencies, PPCDAM was instrumental in helping to reduce deforestation in the Amazon by 76.8 percent from 2004 to 2010, Teixeira said.

Part of the government's strategy to prevent deforestation and conserve Brazil's biodiversity-rich forests is the creation of protected areas.

According to the Global Biodiversity Outlook 3, a report released earlier this year by the United Nations Environment Programme, nearly 75 percent of the 700,000 square kilometers of protected areas created around the world since 2003 are located in Brazil.

But the Senate passed the new Forest Code late Tuesday that will reduce the size of forested buffer zones around rivers, and reduce the amount of land that owners must leave forested.

The bill overhauls of the current Forest Code in Brazil, first issued in 1934. It was approved by the lower House of Congress in May.

On the sidelines of the UN climate talks in Durban, former Brazilian Environment Minister Marina Silva said the bill could weaken Brazil's global leadership on forest conservation as a means to limit climate change.

"The approved law will make it difficult, and by a lot, for Brazil to keep their emission targets," Silva told reporters in Durban. She is calling on President Dilma Rousseff to veto the new Forest Code.

At the Durban talks, Greenpeacers are demonstrating against the new Forest Code. The international environmental group says the changes in Brazil's Forest Code will open the Amazon up for dangerous deforestation and will compromise the international agreements former President Lula da Silva signed during the 2009 UN climate conference in Copenhagen that committed Brazil to steep CO2 emissions reduction targets.