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盼杜絕非法伐木 阿富汗居民轉行賣雪

2014年09月11日
摘譯自2014年9月8日ENS阿富汗,霍斯特報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

數百年來,阿富汗居民用特別挖製的坑洞儲藏冬雪,好在酷暑時使用。最近東南山區Khost省居民和官員發現,銷售這些儲藏的冬雪,可以減少嚴重耗竭森林資源的非法伐木活動。

阿富汗山區Khost省多雪。(來源:Afghanistan Matters)

只有非法伐木一途? 阿富汗居民想「改行」

非法伐木是阿富汗的主要問題。許多伐木者表示他們沒有其他的收入來源,當地30年來的衝突,讓居民不得不砍伐森林販賣或自用。

Spera區一位居民表示,森林砍伐破壞土壤,牧草越來越少,已經讓傳統畜牧活動越發困難;Mangal區居民Fateh Khan表示,自己是該地區近年來眾多放棄非法伐木、改從事儲雪賣雪的生意人之一。他現在每年運輸和銷售數卡車的雪到省首府,生意越來越好,上一季獲利特別多。

「以前我砍森林裡的樹並銷售木材,但賺的沒有賣雪多。現在每年我靠賣雪可賺10000到12000美元。」Khan說,雖然儲雪賣雪也是辛苦工作,還是比砍樹或到國外找工作好。

政府擬做政策推廣 替人民找副業

Khost省已經流失1300平方公里的森林地。一項德國學者進行的調查發現,跟1978年相比,Khost、Paktia和Paktika幾省已流失75%森林地。

儘管阿富汗政府聲明森林屬於政府,但實際強制力所及範圍有限,難以停止過度砍伐。該省農業與環保官員估計,如果居民轉做賣雪生意,伐林速度應可減緩10%到30%,因此他們要擬定國家策略推廣。

當地官員表示,他們正在多方嘗試阻止非法伐木。Khost省關務主任Fazlullah Fazel說,「為了抑止森林過度開發,製作門和窗框的木材每公尺將要額外徵收2美元的稅。」

Khost省環保主任Abdul Ghias Jalatzai說,「除了雪的生意,我們也試著提供更多維生機會,如畜牧、養蜂和養雞,讓居民不再砍樹。」

Snow Sales Replace Illegal Logging in Afghan Province
KHOST, Afghanistan, September 8, 2014 (ENS)

For hundreds of years, people in Afghanistan have stockpiled winter snows in specially-dug pits so they can use it during the scorching summer months.

Now, residents and officials in the mountainous southeastern province of Khost say storing and selling snow could provide a viable alternative to the illegal logging which has severely depleted local forests.

Deforestation is a major problem in Afghanistan. More than 30 years of conflict has left woodland areas devastated as people cut timber to sell or use themselves. Many loggers say they have no other means of earning an income.

A resident of Spera district said that the tradition of livestock raising has suffered as soil damage caused by deforestation means there is nowhere left to graze animals.

Fateh Khan, a resident of Mangal district, said that he is one of many people in the area who have abandoned illegal logging in recent years to store and sell snow.

He now transports and sells several truckloads of snow to the provincial capital every year, and says the business is going well, with last season particularly profitable.

“Previously, I would cut down trees in the forest and sell the timber, but I wouldn’t make as much profit as I make selling snow. I make 10,000 to 12,000 dollars profit every year in the snow business,” Khan said, adding that although the work was hard, it was preferable to chopping wood or having to seek employment abroad.

In Khost province, about half the 1,300 square-kilometer forested area has been lost. Agricultural and environmental protection officials in the province estimate that the pace of deforestation could be slowed by between 10 and 30 percent if people in mountain areas turned to selling snow, and they want a national strategy to be put in place to promote this.

A survey carried out by German experts found that in Khost, Paktia and Paktika provinces have lost nearly 75 percent of the forested area recorded in 1978.

Although the Afghan constitution says that forests belong to the state, stopping over-exploitation of them becomes almost impossible when the government’s reach is limited.

Local officials say they are trying a number of tactics to discourage illegal logging.

Abdul Ghias Jalatzai, the director of environmental protection in Khost, said, “Besides the snow business, we also want to implement plans to provide people with jobs like raising livestock, beekeeping and poultry farming so that they stop cutting down trees.”

Fazlullah Fazel, director of the Khost customs department, added that to discourage over-use of forests, an extra tax of US$2 per meter was levied on timber used to make doors and window frames. 

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

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