研究:接觸含阻燃劑家具 幼童易有霸凌、攻擊行為 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

研究:接觸含阻燃劑家具 幼童易有霸凌、攻擊行為

2017年03月24日
摘譯自2017年3月11日ENS美國,奧勒岡,科瓦利斯報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

研究指出,家具、地毯、電器和車內裝中所含的阻燃劑雖能阻燃、降低火災傷害,卻也能影響幼童的社交發展。

美國奧勒岡州立大學環境流行病學家凱爾(Molly Kile)研究發現,幼童社交行為和接觸阻燃劑的情況高度相關。

包括嬰兒背帶、嬰兒床墊等泡棉製品、含軟墊的座椅、儀表板等汽車內裝都含有阻燃劑,美國環保署也建議父母,經常勤洗手、以濕布擦拭灰塵等方式,避免孩子接觸阻燃劑。

Lynn Friedman(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

含泡棉製品的舊家具,隱含阻燃劑健康危機。Lynn Friedman(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

廣泛用於家具 阻燃劑殘留家中、車內

為因應美國加州消防相關新法律,廠商於1975年開始在常見家具中添加阻燃劑。2014年加州更新可燃性標準,讓家具廠商可不添加阻燃劑,但是阻燃劑仍廣泛被使用,而且會在室內環境中殘留。

最常見的阻燃劑是溴化二苯醚(BDE)和有機磷酸酯類阻燃劑(OPFR)。科學研究發現BDE和癌症、生殖系統問題和低智商有關後,過去五年間BDE逐漸被淘汰,改由OPFR替代。

然而,舊家具和泡綿製品中仍然存在這兩種阻燃劑。阻燃劑還可能存在在兒童會接觸到的消費性塑膠、織品和泡棉製品中,像是嬰兒枕頭、汽車座椅、嬰兒床墊、嬰兒背帶、嬰兒車本身和嬰兒車的可更換布墊。

添加的阻燃劑並不會被固定在物料中,而會隨時間逐漸釋出到室內環境。

Oregon State University(CC BY-SA 2.0)

美國研究以手環測知阻燃劑暴露量。圖片來源:Oregon State University(CC BY-SA 2.0)

美大學實測:所有幼兒都接觸到阻燃劑

奧勒岡州立大學研究團隊找來92位奧勒岡州3到5歲幼兒,讓他們連續七天配戴一種矽手環,測量他們暴露於阻燃劑的量。這款手環是奧勒岡州立大學農業科學院學者安德森(Kim Anderson)所開發,表面上有模擬細胞的小孔,可吸收環境中的化學物質。受試者交返手環時,安德森便能用來檢測1200種化學物質。

研究人員讓幼兒父母或主要照顧者填寫問卷,提供包括年齡、性別、教育程度和住家環境等資料,並請幼兒的學校老師協助幼兒在校行為的評量。

研究結果顯示,所有的兒童都多少有接觸到阻燃劑。接觸OFPR量較高的兒童在校表現較不負責任,較具有攻擊性、不守規矩、過動、注意力不集中和霸凌行為。接觸BDE量較多的兒童則被老師評論為較沒有自信。

Aislinn Ritchie(CC BY-SA 2.0)

兒童攻擊行為。Aislinn Ritchie(CC BY-SA 2.0)

美國環保署建議父母透過以下方式避免孩子接觸阻燃劑:

  1. 父母和孩子都勤洗手,尤其是飯前。
  2. 經常以濕布擦拭灰塵。
  3. 經常用濕布或有HEPA過濾功能的吸塵器清掃。
  4. 避免幼童啃咬可能含有阻燃劑的物品。
  5. 修補含軟墊家具的破損。
  6. 常擦拭和用吸塵器清潔汽車座椅和儀表板,這些車內裝都含有阻燃劑。
Flame Retardants Linked to Child Aggression, Bullying
CORVALLIS, Oregon, March 11, 2017 (ENS)

There is no doubt that flame retardant chemicals added to furniture, carpeting electronics and vehicles to halt or slow fires do save lives. But these chemicals also can affect the social development of young children, new research has found.

Health scientists from Oregon State University found a “significant relationship” between social behaviors among children and their exposure to widely used flame retardants, says Molly Kile, an environmental epidemiologist and associate professor in the Oregon State University College of Public Health and Human Sciences.

Manufacturers began adding flame retardants in 1975, in response to new legislation in California intended to reduce flammability in common household items.

California updated its flammability standards in 2014, and now allows furniture manufacturers to meet the standards without adding flame retardant chemicals to their products, but the chemicals are still widely used and they linger in the indoor environment.

The most common types of flame retardants found in homes and vehicles are brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) and organophosphate-based flame retardants (OPFRs).

The organophosphate-based flame retardants have emerged as an alternative to BDEs, which have been phased out in some states over the past five years as links have been discovered to environmental health concerns such as cancers, reproductive problems and lower IQs in children.

Both chemicals are still found in older furniture and foam items. Flame retardant chemicals may be present in plastic, textile and foam consumer products children may be exposed to such as nursing pillows, car seats, crib mattresses, baby carriers, strollers and changing pads.

The flame retardants are added to the products and are not bound in the materials, and this causes them to be released into indoor environments every day.

For this study, the OSU research team recruited 92 Oregon children between ages three to five to wear a silicone wristband for seven days to measure their exposure to flame retardants.

The wristbands, developed by Kim Anderson of the OSU College of Agricultural Sciences, have a porous surface that mimics a cell, absorbing chemicals that the wearers are exposed to through their environment.

When the wristbands are returned, Anderson can screen for up to 1,200 chemicals.

The researchers had parents or primary caregivers complete questionnaires giving facts such as age, gender, education level and the home environment, while preschool teachers completed behavior assessments for each participating child.

Results showed that all of the children were exposed to some level of flame retardant.

Children who had higher exposure rates to organophosphate-based flame retardants, or OFPRs, showed less responsible behavior and more aggression, defiance, hyperactivity, inattention and bullying behaviors.

Children with higher exposure to brominated diphenyl ethers, or BDEs, were seen as less assertive by their teachers.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommends that parents:

* – Wash their hands and their children’s hands often, especially before eating.
* – Dust frequently with a moist cloth.
* – Wet mop or vacuum with a HEPA filter attachment often.
* – Prevent small children from chewing on products that may contain these chemicals.
* – Repair tears in upholstered furniture.
* – Wipe and vacuum the interior of their car often as seats and dashboards contain flame retardant chemicals.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

作者

蔡麗伶(LiLing Barricman)

In my healing journey and learning to attain the breath awareness, I become aware of the reality that all the creatures of the world are breathing the same breath. Take action, here and now. From my physical being to the every corner of this out of balance's planet.

 

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。