In their final debate of the election campaign, Senator Barack Obama of Illinois, the Democratic presidential nominee, and Senator John McCain of Arizona, the Republican nominee, sparred over domestic issues - taxes, the economy, health care, education - and particularly energy policy.
McCain put the emphasis on nuclear power and offshore drilling to achieve energy independence for the United States and says he would eliminate existing subsidies for ethanol production.
"I opposed subsidies for ethanol because I thought it distorted the market and created inflation. Senator Obama supported those subsidies," said McCain. "I would eliminate the tariff on imported sugarcane-based ethanol from Brazil."
Obama supports clean coal technology, nuclear development as long as it is safe, and U.S. production of solar, wind, geothermal and other renewable energy technologies.
Obama outlined his plan to wean the United States off foreign oil dependence.
"But understand," Obama said, "we only have three to four percent of the world's oil reserves and we use 25 percent of the world's oil, which means that we can't drill our way out of the problem. And that's why I focused on putting resources into solar, wind, biodiesel, geothermal."
"If we can get that right, then we can move in a direction not only of energy independence but we can create five million new jobs all across America," he said, "including in the heartland, where we can retool some of these plants to make these highly fuel-efficient cars, and also to make wind turbines and solar panels, the kinds of clean energy approaches that should be the driver of our economy for the next century."
Going into the debate, the Gallup Poll put Obama in the lead at 49 percent to McCain's 43 percent.
But other polls on the debate are out, and they declare Obama to be the winner.