英國大企業強制揭露碳排放 2013年4月起實施 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

英國大企業強制揭露碳排放 2013年4月起實施

2012年08月16日
摘譯自2012年8月10日ENS英國,倫敦報導;柯雙華編譯;莫聞審校

英國Teesside工廠及煉油廠釋放溫室氣體(照片由Ian Britton拍攝, 取自Freefoto.com)英國政府在里約地球高峰會公佈的計劃現正啟動,從2013年4月起,在倫敦證交所掛牌的1100多家公司,都必須報告其溫室氣體排放量。

英國是第一個強制規定企業將排放量數據納入年報的國家,投資者將可藉此評估公司是否有效的掌握溫室氣體所帶來的長程隱性成本。當初在里約高峰會宣布此政策的英國副首相Nick Clegg表示,「只計算經營成本卻隱匿溫室氣體排放,是個錯誤的經濟模式。」

「英國的企業需要為了環境的好處減少排放有害氣體,但許多公司支持我們的計畫是因為節能同時節省能源帳單開銷、增進公司名譽、以及幫助管理長程的成本。」Clegg表示。

相關新條例將從2013年4月開始執行,且將於2015年評估成效,2016年部長們將會決定是否將規定推展到所有的大型企業。

Clegg表示,英國政府目前正努力在2025年前,減少碳排放到1990年排放水準的50%以下,「氣候變遷是當今最嚴重的威脅之一,英國正領導國內外都需要的緊急措施。」

英國政府已經發布條例草案交由公眾評議。這項條例是接續去年的公眾諮詢結論,當時多數人都支持企業溫室氣體排放納入強制報告項目。

政府曾於7月25日舉行兩場相關的公眾諮詢,一場針對條例草案,而另一場則針對如何清楚明確地呈報環境關鍵表現指標。兩者都將在2012年10月17日開放公眾諮詢。

根據2008年的氣候變遷法,政府須於2012年4月6日以前實行強制性的碳排通報規定,否則就得向國會呈報無法執行的原因。在3月時,環境部長Caroline Spelman推遲了執行排放量報告的決議,原因是相關首長認為需更多時間考慮相關事證。

如今,Spelman表示,「在討論中,企業表示有意減少溫室氣體排放且將數據公開化透明化。他們只要求的是一個公平的遊戲規則,企業間可以彼此檢視。」「投資者現在正密切關注企業的各項環保認證,而溫室氣體排放報告可提供有力的資訊,決定他們要投資在哪裡。」

二氧化碳、甲烷等溫室氣體正導致氣候變遷,引起氣溫增高、海平面上升、地區性旱災或洪水。環境部表示,「每年超過30億噸的二氧化碳因消耗石油而產生,而現在大氣層的二氧化碳濃度遠高於地球最近80萬年來的歷史。」

排放報告是企業減少產生溫室氣體的第一關鍵階段,據估計將在2021年前減少400萬噸的二氧化碳排放量。

在公眾諮詢中,大部分的企業回應支持改革,企業主及環保組織也都支持政府的政策。奧爾德斯蓋特集團(Aldersgate Group)執行董事Andrew Raingold指出,「大多數的企業非常歡迎強制性碳排報告,這是一個政府向企業管理層要求更多透明化的地方。我們的分析顯示,這項公告將會讓企業節省大量成本。」

超過75%的英國成人在5月一項2000人的民意調查中,認為企業應該報告他們的排放量,英國工業聯盟的企業環境政策主任Rhian Kelly表示,「我們已經呼籲執行碳排報告一段時間了,假使這項政策執行妥當,它一定會大受歡迎。」

「節能是毫無疑問是最簡單的方法,它不僅節省企業開銷,還能幫助國家達成氣候目標。」能源與氣候變遷部長Edward Davey表示。

Largest UK Firms Must Disclose CO2 Emissions
LONDON, UK, August 10, 2012 (ENS)

More than 1,100 public companies listed on the London Stock Exchange will have to report their greenhouse gas emissions from next April under plans announced at the Rio+20 Summit that are now moving forward.

The UK is the first country to make it mandatory for companies to include emissions data for their entire organization in their annual reports. The reports will allow investors to see which companies are effectively managing the long-term costs of greenhouse gas emissions.

Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg, who announced the new policy in Rio, said, “Counting your business costs while hiding your greenhouse gas emissions is a false economy.”

“British companies need to reduce their harmful emissions for the benefit of the planet, but many back our plans because being energy efficient saves companies money on energy bills, improves their reputation with customers and helps them manage their long-term costs too,” said Clegg.

The new regulations will be introduced from April 2013. They will be reviewed in 2015, before ministers decide whether or not to extend the requirement to all large companies from 2016.
The UK government is committed to cutting the country’s emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, CO2, to 50 percent of 1990 levels by 2025, Clegg said.

“Climate change is one of the gravest threats we face. The UK is leading the urgent action needed at home and abroad,” he said.

The government has issued a draft regulation for public comment. The regulation follows a public consultation last year where the majority supported making greenhouse gas emissions reporting mandatory.

The government launched two related consultations on July 25 – one on the draft regulation and the other on how to report Environmental Key Performance Indicators in a clear and concise way. Both are open for public comment until October 17, 2012.

Under the Climate Change Act 2008, the government must introduce mandatory carbon emissions reporting by April 6, 2012 or explain to Parliament why it is not doing so.

In March, Environment Secretary Caroline Spelman delayed a decision to introduce reporting, saying ministers needed more time to consider the evidence.

Now Spelman says, “The discussions we’ve had with businesses show that they want to cut down their greenhouse gas emissions, and they want to be open and transparent about it. What they have asked for is a level playing field so that they can be fairly judged against one another.”

“Investors are now looking hard at the green credentials of businesses, and the reporting of greenhouse gas emissions will give them vital information as they decide where to invest their money,” she said.

Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are causing climate change leading to global temperature increases, sea level rises and dangerous changes to patterns of drought and flooding.“More than 30 billion tonnes of CO2 are emitted globally each year by burning fossil fuels and the concentration of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere is now higher than at any time in at least the last 800,000 years,” the UK Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Defra.said.

Reporting is the first vital step for companies to make reductions in these dangerous emissions. It is estimated it will save four million tonnes of CO2 emissions by 2021.

The majority of businesses responding to the consultation support the change. Government plans are also backed by employer and environmental organizations. Andrew Raingold, executive director for the Aldersgate Group, said, “The vast majority of businesses strongly welcome the introduction of mandatory carbon reporting. This is an area where corporate executives have been demanding more regulation from government to provide greater clarity and transparency. Our analysis demonstrates that this announcement will lead to huge cost savings for businesses.” said Raingold.

In May, over 75 percent of UK adults responding to a recent public opinion poll of 2000 people say large businesses should be required to report their emissions. Said Rhian Kelly, director for business environment policy, Confederation of British Industry, “We have been calling for mandatory carbon reporting for some time. Provided this is done in a sensible way, this announcement is to be applauded.”

“Energy efficiency is a no brainer,” said Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change Edward Davey. “It saves money for businesses whilst cutting carbon to help us meet our climate targets.”

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS