多管齊下 英國宣布2040年禁售柴油汽油車 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

多管齊下 英國宣布2040年禁售柴油汽油車

2017年07月31日
摘譯自2017年7月26日ENS英國,倫敦報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

英國政府應法院命令提出減空污新計畫,宣布將在2040年前禁售所有新上市的汽油和柴油車。

這份減少道路二氧化氮的計畫,是由英國環境、糧食與農村事務部和運輸部合作擬定,指導地方政府該如何處置轄區內繁忙道路導致的空氣污染。7月26日的宣讀重點在於如何在最短時間內使道路二氧化氮達標。

這個計畫是梅伊政府改善空氣品質政策的其中一個方案。明年梅伊政府將發表完整的改善空氣品質策略,解決其他空氣污染源。

2017年倫敦街頭一景。圖片來源:Henry Zbyszynski(CC BY 2.0)

根據官方資料,英國的空氣品質正在逐漸改善,包括二氧化氮在內的所有主要污染源濃度在過去15年間皆見減少。不過也有分析指出,英國1800條主要道路中,有81條二氧化氮濃度超標,其中33條在倫敦之外。

為了加速作為,地方政府必須在八個月內提出初步計畫,並在明年底前完成最終版計畫。環境大臣戈夫(Michael Gove)說,政府會提供城市鄉鎮2億5500萬英鎊計畫預算,加上已經投資的27億英鎊,共有近3億英鎊的資金挹注淨化空氣與減少車輛排放。

運輸大臣葛瑞林(Chris Grayling)承諾實現運輸的綠色革命並減少城市鄉鎮的空氣污染,「我們要在2050年前讓英國路上跑的每台小客車和貨車達成零排放,因此我們將在2020年前投注6億英鎊在開發、製造和使用超低排放車輛。今日我們承諾投注1億發展低排放公車和舊公車換裝乾淨引擎。」

政府也提出方案,讓電動和天然瓦斯貨車的駕駛人可駕駛更重的車型,鼓勵企業選擇乾淨的商業車輛。

地方機關更有許多方式改善空氣品質的辦法可選,如更改道路設計以避免壅塞、鼓勵採用超低排放車輛和改裝公用運輸。同時地方政府也必須考量限制部分路段的污染車輛使用,例如在一天中某些時段禁駛某些車輛於特定道路,或是提高收費。

中央政府表示,地方機關應將提高收費當作最後一個選項。

但是倫敦市長薩迪柯汗(Sadiq Khan)認為中央政府的計畫虛應故事,錯失消除致死空氣污染的良機。「空氣污染每年造成英國4萬人過早死亡,其中倫敦有超過9000人。政府的計畫是徹底改善空氣品質的難得機會。淘汰新柴油車是好事,但是倫敦市民無法等到2040年。我們現在就需要完整的柴油車報廢計畫,立刻汰除高污染車輛,並給予城市改善地方空氣品質所需的權力。」

2015年倫敦的空氣污染狀況相當嚴重。圖片來源:DAVID HOLT(CC BY 2.0)

英國政府會端出這樣的政策方案,乃是依照法院的命令。

2015年4月,ClientEarth環境法律事務所對英國政府的訴訟案在最高法院勝訴,法官要求政府儘快提出降低空氣污染物質於法定上限內的具體計畫。

2015年12月政府提出的計畫慘不忍睹,ClientEarth再次狀告法院。2016年11月,高院再次要求政府修改計畫。

ClientEarth執行長James Thornton對最新版本的計畫仍然很不滿意,「2040柴油與汽油車禁令固然重要,但仍是個拖延戰術,無法真正解決此刻非法空氣污染造成的迫切公衛危機。」

UK to Ban New Diesel and Petrol Vehicles by 2040
LONDON, UK, July 26, 2017 (ENS)

The UK government will end the sale of all new conventional petrol and diesel cars and vans by 2040, officials said today, as they unveiled new plans to reduce air pollution in response to a court order. 

The UK plan for tackling roadside nitrogen dioxide concentrations produced by the Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, Defra, and the Department for Transport outlines how councils with the worst levels of air pollution at busy road junctions and hotspots must take action. 

Today's announcement is focused on delivering nitrogen dioxide (NO2) compliance at the roadside in the shortest amount of time. 

This is one part of the May Government's program to deliver clean air. Next year the government will publish a comprehensive Clean Air Strategy which will address other sources of air pollution. 

Air quality in the UK has been improving, with reductions in emissions of all of the key pollutants, and NO2 levels down by half in the last 15 years, the government says. 

Yet, an analysis of over 1,800 of Britain's major roads shows that 81 roads are in breach of legal pollution limits for NO2, with 33 of these outside of London. 

To accelerate action, local areas will be asked to produce initial plans within eight months and final plans by the end of next year. 

The government will help towns and cities by providing £255 million to implement their plans, in addition to the £2.7 billion already being invested. 

This is one element of the government's £3 billion program to clean up the air and reduce vehicle emissions, said Gove. 

Transport Secretary Chris Grayling said, “We are determined to deliver a green revolution in transport and reduce pollution in our towns and cities.”

We want nearly every car and van on UK roads to be zero emission by 2050, which is why we've committed to investing more than £600m in the development, manufacture and use of ultra-low emission vehicles by 2020,” Grayling said. 

“Today we commit £100m towards new low emission buses and retrofitting older buses with cleaner engines,” he said. 

The government is also putting forward proposals for van drivers to have the right to use heavier vehicles if they are electric or natural gas-powered, making it easier for businesses to choose cleaner commercial vehicles. 

Local authorities will have access to a range of options to tackle poor air quality in their plans, such as changing road layouts to reduce congestion, encouraging uptake of ultra-low emissions vehicles, and retrofitting public transport. 

Local authorities may also need to consider restrictions on polluting vehicles using affected roads. This could mean preventing polluting vehicles using some of these roads at certain times of the day or introducing charging, as the Mayor of London has already announced. 

The government says local authorities should exhaust other options before imposing charging. 

London Mayor Sadiq Khan is critical of the government's plan, calling it “a half-hearted commitment.” 

He says the UK government is missing a rare opportunity to clean up the country's deadly air pollution. 

“Air pollution contributes to 40,000 premature deaths across the country with more than 9000 in London every year,” said Mayor Khan. “The government's air quality plan is a once-in-a-generation opportunity to make the air that we all breathe less toxic.” 

“The commitment to phase out sales of new diesel cars is welcome, but Londoners suffering right now simply can't afford to wait until 2040. We need a fully-funded diesel scrappage fund now to get polluting vehicles off our streets immediately, as well as new powers so that cities across the UK can take the action needed to clean up our air,” said the mayor.

 

The government's plan comes in response to a court order to bring air pollution within legal limits

In April 2015, environmental law firm ClientEarth won its case against the government in the Supreme Court, with judges ordering ministers to come up with a plan to reduce air pollution to within legal limits as soon as possible.

The plan, released in December 2015, was so poor that ClientEarth took the government back to court. In November of 2016, the government was again ordered, this time by the High Court, to revise its plans.

James Thornton, CEO of the environmental law firm ClientEarth is critical of the government's latest proposal.

Thornton said, “The 2040 diesel and petrol ban, while important, is a diversionary tactic and doesn't deal with the public health emergency caused by illegally polluted air, now.”

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

作者

蔡麗伶(LiLing Barricman)

In my healing journey and learning to attain the breath awareness, I become aware of the reality that all the creatures of the world are breathing the same breath. Take action, here and now. From my physical being to the every corner of this out of balance's planet.

 

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。