雪梨的碳中和道路:電動汽車+自行車 | 環境資訊中心

雪梨的碳中和道路:電動汽車+自行車

2010年07月20日
摘譯自2010年7月15日ENS澳洲,雪梨報導;林綉娟編譯;范仕穎審校

三菱電動車 i-MiEV,圖片來源: Mitsubishi Motors Australia三菱i-MiEV電動汽車近日首度於澳洲上市,首批40輛,其中一輛已在雪梨上路。

每天有70多萬輛車子在雪梨市中心穿梭,導致產生大量的煙霧、溫室氣體污染,塞車,以及噪音。雪梨市長墨爾(Clover Moore)15日表示, 「電動車跟大眾運輸、步行和騎自行車一樣,都能夠減低交通的環境衝擊,因為這些交通方式不會排放廢氣──但必須使用低碳或零碳的電力來減低溫室氣體污染,而不是只把動力來源換成電能而已。」

i-MiEV是一部零碳排汽車,由一個大型鋰電池系統發電,在家裡只要有100伏特或是200伏特的電源就可以充電。三菱汽車說,就算把發電廠的碳排放也算進去,i-MiEV的碳排放仍只有一部小型汽油車輛的30%。 

雪梨政府最近提出了一筆每年200萬美元的替代能源經費,以完成在2030年以前,達到以替代能源產生25%-30%電力的目標。

而另外70%的能源則將來自低碳的「汽電熱共生發電廠」(trigeneration plants)──這種電廠可同時運用燃料的三種功能:冷凝、加熱、以及發電。

雪梨將會在市中心的商業區試駕i-MiEV,並且蒐集資料來測量以及比較汽油、柴油,與油電混合車的能源消耗與排放量。

目前i-MiEV的最高行駛速度可達每小時130公里,充電一次最多可行駛長達160公里,而用15安培的電源八小時內可完成充電。

自行車路網  市民高度支持

雪梨市民騎自行車通勤。攝影: Dave在這個更環保的雪梨市內,電動車將會跟數目蒸蒸日上的自行車共享街道,屆時自行車將能奔馳於一個全新且全面的自行車路網。 

根據Galaxy新的民調顯示,84%的雪梨居民認為一個優良的自行車路網是很重要的。在雪梨市橫跨14個行政區內的500位居民回應了這份民調,這份委外辦理的民調是市政府調查研究計畫的一部分,此計畫持續調查騎乘自行車在社區居民眼中的觀感,及居民騎乘自行車的情形。

居民認為交通壅塞是雪梨的一大問題,雪梨的交通量預測將會在未來15年內成長23%。半數的民調樣本表示自行車道交通網絡的主要益處將是舒緩交通壅塞。 騎乘自行車在雪梨市內是一個常見的選擇。有多達1/3的居民在過去三個月內騎過自行車。在年紀18~35歲的民調樣本中,73%的人指出,如果有更安全而且更方便的自行車交通網絡,他們會願意考慮騎自行車,或更常騎自行車。

雪梨官方宣稱在2016年前,將會有10%的出門交通是以自行車代步。為了支持這項政策,雪梨市提供免費的自行車課程以及研習營。雪梨市並且將自行車道升級,計畫將建置長達55公里的分道自行車道。

電動車與自行車計畫是雪梨政府對抗氣候變遷的努力之一。2008年該市靠著高效率的能源使用,替代能源與碳排量抵消,已成為澳洲第一個碳中和(carbon neutral)的城市。2009年,雪梨市也同樣成功地完成了碳中和的任務。

Sydney Tries Greener Transport With Electric Cars, New Cycleway
SYDNEY, Australia, July 15, 2010 (ENS)

The City of Sydney has secured one of 40 Mitsubishi i-MiEVs for its vehicle fleet, the first production electric vehicle to be released in the Australian market. 

"Each day more than 700,000 cars travel throughout central Sydney, significantly contributing to smog, greenhouse gas pollution, congestion and noise," Lord Mayor Clover Moore MP said Thursday. 

"Electric vehicles, together with public transport, walking and cycling, can help reduce these environmental impacts, as they produce no exhaust emissions. But they must use low or zero carbon emission electricity to reduce greenhouse pollution rather than simply displace it," she said.

Powered by a large lithium-ion battery system and chargable with a 100V or 200V power source in the home, the i-MiEV is a zero-emissions vehicle. Even when taking into account CO2 emissions at the power plants that generate the power needed for charging the car, Mitsubishi says it emits only about 30 percent of the CO2 of a gasoline minicar.

The Sydney government has recently established an annual $2 million renewable energy fund to reach its goal to produce 25 to 30 percent of its electricity from renewable sources by 2030.

A further 70 percent of power will come from low carbon trigeneration plants that use fuel for three separate functions - the simultaneous production of cooling, heating and power - in one process.

The city will operate the i-MiEV in the central business district, and collect data to measure and compare energy consumption and emission benefits against the petrol, diesel and hybrid powered vehicles.

The i-MiEV currently has a range of up to 160 kilometers at top speed of 130 kms per hour, and recharges in less than eight hours using a standard 15 amp power point. 

In a greener Sydney, electric cars will share the streets with an increasing number of bicycles utilizing a new, comprehensive bike network.

Eighty-four percent of inner Sydney residents consider a good bike network to be important, according to a new public opinion poll by Galaxy. Five hundred residents across 14 inner Sydney council areas responded to the poll, which was commissioned by the City as part of a continual consultation and research program on how bike riding is perceived and used by the community.

Residents recognize that congestion on Sydney's roads is a major problem that is forecast to grow 23 percent over the next 15 years. Half of those polled said the main benefit of a cycleway network is less traffic congestion.

Bike riding is common in inner Sydney, with as many as one third of residents (33 percent) riding a bike in the past three months.

Of those polled, 73 percent aged 18 to 35 years said they would consider taking up riding, or riding more often, if a safe and convenient cycleway network is provided. 

Sydney officials aim to see 10 percent of all trips made by bike by 2016. To support this, the city runs free cycling courses and workshops, and the city is upgrading cycle routes, with plans for 55 kilometers (32 miles) of separated cycleways.

The electric vehicle and cycling programs are part of an overall effort by the Sydney government to combat climate change. In 2008, the city became the first carbon neutral local government in Australia through energy efficiency, renewable energy and offsets. In 2009, the city accomplished its second year of carbon neutrality.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導