歐巴馬建立美國第一個國家海洋政策 | 環境資訊中心

歐巴馬建立美國第一個國家海洋政策

2010年07月26日
摘譯自2010年7月20日ENS美國華府報導,洪美惠編譯,蔡麗伶審校

加州聖塔芭芭拉海岸線。圖片節錄自Paul Rumsey flickr相本歐巴馬建立美國第一個國家海洋政策,這政策將可互相協調管理美國的海洋、海岸和五大湖相關事務。

19日,歐巴馬採納跨部會海洋政策特別小組( Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force)的建議,通過並頒佈這項行政命令。該工作隊從2009年6月就開始收集資料及草擬政策。

依據此行政命令,「國家海洋委員會」(National Ocean Council)為新政策執行機構。在以生態系統為基礎的政策之下,海洋管理意味著特殊活動的管理法規,例如石油和天然氣開發,將會考慮到是否影響到廣大生態系統。

這是首次對於沿岸和海洋空間發展,建立並改善現有的聯邦、州政府、部落、當地以及區域的決策和計畫過程。

海洋空間規劃的目的是保護海洋生態系統,透過科學基礎決策方式,減少因為新舊海洋利用方式不同所產生的衝突,以及涉及相關利益者與公共利益的問題。

民間智庫皮優海洋委員會(Pew Oceans Commission)和美國海洋政策委員會( U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy)在2003和2004年曾提出警告,聯邦機構間缺乏協調的不良管理方式,將會威脅到我們的海洋、海岸和五大湖的健康狀況與經濟生產。

國家海洋委員會計劃今夏稍晚舉行第一次會議,並開始執行這個政策。

Obama Establishes America's First National Oceans Policy
WASHINGTON, DC, July 20, 2010 (ENS)

President Barack Obama has established a national ocean policy that will for the first time create a coordinated system for managing America's oceans, coasts and Great Lakes.

In an Executive Order issued Monday, President Obama adopted the final recommendations of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force that has been gathering facts and drafting the policy since June 2009.

The order creates a National Ocean Council to implement the new policy.

Marine management under this policy will be "ecosystem-based," which means that regulation of specific activities, such as oil and gas development, will take into account impacts on thebroader ecosystems that could be affected.

For the first time, it provides for the development of coastal and marine spatial plans that build upon and improve existing federal, state, tribal, local, and regional decisionmaking and planning processes.

Marine spatial planning is intended to protect ocean ecosystems and minimize conflicts between new and existing ocean uses through science-based decision making and the involvement of stakeholders and the public.

In 2003 and 2004, reports issued by the Pew Oceans Commission and the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy, respectively, warned that poor management and lack of coordination among federal agencies were threatening the health and economic productivity of our oceans, coasts, andGreat Lakes.

The National Ocean Council will plan to hold its first meeting later this summer to begin implementing the national policy.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導