超級細菌終結者誕生——可用在生活空間的消毒光波 | 環境資訊中心

超級細菌終結者誕生——可用在生活空間的消毒光波

2010年11月19日
摘譯自2010年11月16日ENS蘇格蘭,格拉斯哥報導;洪美惠編譯;蔡麗伶審校

安德森博士(John Anderson)和麥克萊恩(Michelle Maclean)與HINS光束系統。圖片來自:斯特拉斯克萊德大學。位於格拉斯哥的斯特拉思克萊德大學(University of Strathclyde in Glasgow)的研究人員已經開發出能夠殺死醫院超級病菌的先進光線。這種能夠和傳統照明一起使用或是取代傳統照明的LED技術,可以消毒空氣以及光線所壟罩的表面,這種光線稱為HINS光束,其光波屬於可見光窄光譜。

格拉斯哥皇家醫院(Glasgow Royal Infirmary)剛完成2年的臨床實驗,實驗結果顯示這種高強度光束能夠有效對抗醫院及安養院裡最頑強的病原體,例如:抗藥性金黃色葡萄球菌(meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,MRSA)和困難腸梭菌(Clostridium difficile)。

此臨床實驗顯示,與單單只用清潔和消毒等方法相比,HINS光束環境淨化系統(HINS-light Environmental Decontamination System)的消毒效果,更可多降低環境裡60%的病原菌。

「由於光的滲透性質,HINS光束不管是直接照射或是經由反射,都可以消毒環境中的空氣或任何表面。」,研究人員之一的斯特拉斯克萊德大學工學院教授麥格雷戈(Scott MacGregor)說。

微生物學家安德森(John Anderson)教授和麥克萊恩(Michelle Maclean)博士,以及光學物理學家伍爾西(Gerry Woolsey)教授,是這項HINS光束系統的共同發現者和開發者。

「這項技術可以殺死病原菌,但是對病患及工作人員無害。這也就是說,醫院可以連續不斷地消毒病房及隔離的空間。」,安德森教授說。「這個系統是用可見光光波的窄光譜激發細菌體內的分子,產生對MRSA或是困難腸梭菌(Clostridium difficile)致死的高反應化學物種。」

此項為期兩年的HINS光束臨床試驗是由蘇格蘭企業概念驗證計劃(Scottish Enterprise Proof of Concept Programme)資助44萬英鎊。

「臨床試驗顯示,此技術有助於防止從環境傳播病原菌,因此可增加病人的安全。」麥克萊恩說。

HINS光束輝映在培養皿上。圖片來自:斯特拉斯克萊德大學。HINS光束有紫色光的色調,不過研究小組結合LED的技術以產生溫暖的白光照明系統,可以跟醫院裡普通照明一起使用。

「由於傳統消毒滅菌方法明顯受限,臨床環境迫切需要新的方法,使用氣體消毒或是紫外線殺菌都可能對工作人員和病患有害,而清洗、消毒和洗手等基本的日常程序,都有有效性和使用上的限制。HINS光束能夠輕易而自動地對病房或臨床環境進行連續消毒。」工程學院院長麥格雷戈斯科特說。

MRSA感染是因為經常使用抗生素來治療普通的葡萄球菌感染,使得金黃色葡萄球菌變成抗藥性所致。MRSA可以深入體內,造成骨骼、關節、手術傷口、血液循環、心臟瓣膜和肺部等的致命性感染。

MRSA感染大多發生在住院患者或其他醫療保健機構,如養老院和透析中心。這種感染與侵入性程序或設備有關,如手術、靜脈管或人工關節。MRSA帶原者即使他們自己沒有病,也具有傳染性。

另一種MRSA感染類型發生在健康人群的廣大社區,MRSA曾在軍營、兒童照顧中心和監獄爆發過。

困難腸梭菌(Clostridium difficile)會引起大腸或結腸腫脹和發炎。這種發炎症狀稱為腸炎,可引起腹瀉、發燒和腹部絞痛,而且會人傳人。常見的感染發生在服用抗生素的住院病人,尤其常見於住院或安養院的老人。

Light Wave Kills Hospital Superbugs, Harmless to People
GLASGOW, Scotland, November 16, 2010 (ENS)

A pioneering lighting system that kills the superbugs breeding in hospitals has been developed by researchers at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow. The LED technology, which can be used with or instead of conventional lighting, decontaminates the air and exposed surfaces by bathing them in a narrow spectrum of visible-light wavelengths, known as HINS-light.

Two years of clinical trials just completed at Glasgow Royal Infirmary show the high-intensity light is effective against some of the most virulent pathogens found in hospitals and nursing homes, such as meticillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus, MRSA, and Clostridium difficile.

The clinical trials have shown that the HINS-light Environmental Decontamination System provides around 60 percent greater reductions of bacterial pathogens in the hospital environment than are achieved by cleaning and disinfection alone.

"The pervasive nature of light permits the treatment of air and all visible surfaces, regardless of accessibility, either through direct or reflected exposure to HINS-light within the treated environment," said Professor Scott MacGregor, dean of the Faculty of Engineering at Strathclyde and one of the research scientists.

Microbiologists Professor John Anderson and Dr. Michelle Maclean, and optical physicist Professor Gerry Woolsey, are co-discoverers and developers of the HINS-light system.

"The technology kills pathogens but is harmless to patients and staff, which means for the first time, hospitals can continuously disinfect wards and isolation rooms," said Professor Anderson.

"The system works by using a narrow spectrum of visible-light wavelengths to excite molecules contained within bacteria, he explains. "This in turn produces highly reactive chemical species that are lethal to bacteria such as meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA, and Clostridium difficile, known as C.diff."

A two-year clinical trial of the HINS-light system was supported by funding of 440,000 pounds from the Scottish Enterprise Proof of Concept Programme.

Dr. Maclean said, "The clinical trials have shown that the technology can help prevent the environmental transmission of pathogens and thereby increase patient safety."

The technology uses HINS-light which has a violet hue, but the research team have used a combination of LED technologies to produce a warm white lighting system that can be used alongside normal hospital lighting.

Professor Scott MacGregor, dean of the Faculty of Engineering, said, "New approaches to disinfection and sterilisation are urgently needed within the clinical environment, as traditional methods have significant limitations.

"Decontamination methods involving gas sterilants or UV-light can be hazardous to staff and patients, while cleaning, disinfection and hand washing, although essential routine procedures, have limited effectiveness and problems with compliance," MacGregor said.

"HINS-light is a safe treatment that can be easily automated to provide continuous disinfection of wards and other areas of the clinical environment," said MacGregor.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection is caused by a strain of staph bacteria that has become resistant to the antibiotics commonly used to treat ordinary staph infections. MRSA can burrow deep into the body, causing life-threatening infections in bones, joints, surgical wounds, the bloodstream, heart valves and lungs.

Most MRSA infections occur in people who have been in hospitals or other health care settings, such as nursing homes and dialysis centers. This infection is associated with invasive procedures or devices, such as surgeries, intravenous tubing or artificial joints. Carriers of MRSA can spread it, even if they are not sick themselves.

Another type of MRSA infection occurs in the wider community among healthy people. Outbreaks of MRSA have occurred in military training camps, child care centers and jails.

Clostridium difficile are bacteria that can cause swelling and irritation of the large intestine, or colon. This inflammation, known as colitis, can cause diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps and can be passed from person to person. The infection is most common in people who are taking antibiotics while in the hospital and is especially common in older people in hospitals and nursing homes.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導