南半球極度乾燥 智利遭逢50年最嚴重森林大火 | 環境資訊中心

南半球極度乾燥 智利遭逢50年最嚴重森林大火

2017年02月09日
摘譯自2017年2月6日ENS智利,聖地牙哥報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

智利發生50年來最嚴重的森林大火,從1月中至今陸續超過100起野火,延燒超過50萬公頃土地。濃煙讓消防隊員難以控制火勢,整個智利中部和南部每天都有新的熱點出現。目前包括消防員在內已經有11人死亡。部分野火波及國際鳥盟認定的重要鳥類與生物多樣性地區。

智利總統巴舍萊(Michelle Bachelet)宣布全國進入緊急狀態。氣象學家表示,整個南半球正經歷異常乾燥、風強的夏季,正是野火產生的絕佳環境。

Kari Greer/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Headquarters(CC BY 2.0)

森林大火。本圖僅供示意用途。圖片來源:Kari Greer/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Headquarters(CC BY 2.0)

森林運作中心(Forestry Operations Center, CONAF)主任Cristian Orellana說,火勢一個晚上就擴散超過1萬公頃,延燒距離超過26公里,甚至大到飛機無法飛到上空撒水。

智利知名產酒區域的整個葡萄園都被摧毀。數千人被迫離開家園,1500多戶家庭被完全破壞。

歐盟透過歐洲公民保護與人道救援總署(Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations)提供協助。創立於2001年的歐洲公民保護機制(EU Civil Protection Mechanism)協調全歐國家級的公民保護當局,提供災後立即援助。

EUCPM森林火災專家José Almovodovar搭直昇機視察過火災區域後表示,從未見過範圍如此大、破壞如此嚴重的森林火災。

國際鳥盟智利分會(CODEFF)指出,火災使野生動物逃離森林、前往人居地區尋找糧食與避難處。CODEFF已經動員志願者提供協助。

部分野火波及區域是國際鳥盟認定的重要鳥類與生物多樣性地區。全國的野生動物復健中心都在治療鳥類、蛇,以及狐狸、豹和美洲獅等哺乳動物。

CODEFF發起幫燒傷動物搜集醫療補給品的活動,並和其他政府機關與非政府組織進入最偏遠地區尋找受傷動物。

智利森林大火規模之大,從太空就可看到恩佩德拉多城附近有一條燒焦的痕跡。美國太空總署科學家表示,今年智利的大火發生次數是2003至2016年乾季火災發生次數的10倍以上。

2010年的智利野火,外太空也清晰可見。NASA(CC BY 2.0)

2010年的智利野火,外太空也清晰可見。圖片來源:NASA(CC BY 2.0)

研究火災衛星資料15年之久的美國海軍研究實驗室氣象學家
Michael Fromm說:「在我看來這是前所未見的火災,濃煙量和飄散高度都非常驚人,火勢遠超過該區域的一般火災。」

'Extreme' Chilean Wildfires Worst in Decades
SANTIAGO, Chile, February 6, 2017 (ENS)

In Chile’s worst fire disaster in 50 years, the South American country has lost over half a million hectares to more than 100 wildfires that first flared up in mid-January. The blazes have frustrated firefighters’ efforts to control them, with new hot spots emerging daily across the central and southern regions.

Eleven fatalities have been reported, many of them firefighters.

Meteorologists say the entire Southern Hemisphere is experiencing an unusually dry, windy summer, ideal conditions for wildfires to burn out of control.

Chilean President Michelle Bachelet has declared a national state of emergency. As of today, 26 fires are more or less under control, but at least six wildfires are still raging, according to the Forestry Operations Center, CONAF.

Cristian Orellana, who manages CONAF in the central Chilean region of Maule has been supervising the response to the largest fire in the country. “In a single night, the fire spread over 10,000 hectares, covering 26 kilometers,” he said.

“The heat was such that even planes couldn’t fly over to drop water,” said Orellana. 

Entire vineyards in Chile’s famous wine region have been destroyed.

Thousands of people have had to flee their homes, and over 1,500 houses have been completely destroyed. 

The European Union is offering assistance through its Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations.

Established in 2001, the EU Civil Protection Mechanism, EUCPM, coordinates national civil protection authorities across Europe to deliver immediate assistance in the aftermath of a disaster.

“I have never seen such widespread damage and such a level of destruction,” says José Almovodovar, an EUCPM expert in forest fires, after viewing the region from a helicopter.

Wild animals are fleeing the forests towards inhabited areas in search of food and shelter, says CODEFF, the BirdLife International affiliate in Chile, which has mobilized volunteers to help them.

Some of the areas affected by the wildfires have been assessed as being Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas by BirdLife International.

Wildlife rehabilitation centers across the country are treating birds, snakes and mammals such as foxes, leopards and cougars.

CODEFF is running a campaign to collect medicines and medical supplies for the treatment of burned animals. 

CODEFF is coordinating with various government agencies and other NGOs to go to the most remote areas in search of injured animals.

The fires can be seen from space, and their pattern includes a massive burn scar near Empedrado. Scientists with the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA say this year’s Chilean fires are 10 times more numerous that those recorded during the dry seasons from 2003 to 2016.

“This is unprecedented from my perspective. The smoke plumes are huge in abundance and altitude,” said Michael Fromm, a meteorologist with the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory who has been studying satellite fire data for 15 years. “Fires have gotten much larger and much more energetic than typical for that area.”

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

※ 本文與 行政院農業委員會 林務局  合作刊登

作者

蔡麗伶(LiLing Barricman)

In my healing journey and learning to attain the breath awareness, I become aware of the reality that all the creatures of the world are breathing the same breath. Take action, here and now. From my physical being to the every corner of this out of balance's planet.

 

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。