糧食日:「戰勝飢餓」全球行動展開! | 環境資訊中心

糧食日:「戰勝飢餓」全球行動展開!

2010年10月21日
摘譯自2010年10月18日ENS義大利,羅馬報導;段譽豪編譯;蔡麗伶審校

8個月大的Saminou,在進入尼日Aiguie的診所時,僅僅4公斤重,這診所受UKaid的救援兒童計畫所贊助。圖片來自:國際發展部,DFID。根據聯合國最新的統計數字,現今每7個人當中,就有一人處於長期飢餓之中。每6秒鐘就有一名兒童死於與飢餓有關的原因,而另外還有超過2億名兒童處於營養不良的狀況之中。

每年的10月16日是世界糧食日,天主教宗本篤十六世、盧安達總統卡加梅(Paul Kagame)以及聯合國糧農組織(FAO)的主席迪歐夫(Jacques Diouf)共同呼籲團結一致,採取行動對抗飢餓,在有飢荒人口的國家內增加糧食生產。

今年的主題是「團結一致,對抗飢餓」旨在凝聚社會各個階層,來幫助世上超過十億以上的飢餓人口。「實現糧食安全不是一個團體的責任,而是我們所有人的責任,」迪歐夫博士說。

迪歐夫博士在網路上發起了一項請願運動,以反映有志人士的義憤填膺。「10億人口飢荒計畫」透過媒體與人們接觸,邀請大家在網站www.1billionhungry.org 簽署反飢餓請願書,迄今已經有1,612,027人參與連署。

教宗本篤十六世在羅馬的世界糧食日大會上說,「每個人-從個人到民間、國家以及國際社會中的組織-都需要優先考慮人類這個大家庭中的一個最重要的問題,就是免於飢餓的自由。」

教宗說,「國際社會近來重要的一個決定是保障用水的權利,如同FAO過去所努力的,水是人體營養所必須的,也是農業活動以及自然保育所需。」

卡加梅總統表示,「好的政府管理與自給自足的糧食供應是脫不了關係的。多數的發展中國家,為農民營造好的氣候條件仍是政府的責任,特別是為了小型農戶以及相關的農業企業。最終,永續糧食安全可以在消滅貧窮的整體框架下達成。」

國際農業發展基金主席Kanayo Nwanze說,「讓我們以機會的角度來看事情。令人感嘆的是,非洲只有6%的土地有灌溉水源,或者說非洲得到施肥的土地面積只有全世界1/10的水準。」

全世界最大的食物援助組織聯合國世界糧食計畫署(UN's World Food Programme)執行主任希蘭(Josette Sheeran)說,「我真的相信,現在是時候實現我們的夢想,讓世界上不再有人挨餓。」

上週四(10月14日)在講話中舉行的世界糧食獎國際專題討論會前夕年度世界糧食日,安南說:「非洲是唯一的大陸不能生產足夠的糧食來養活自己。只有它已經失敗,在最近數十年來,看農業生產力跟上不斷增長的人口。」

世界糧食獎國際討論會,又稱為博洛格論壇(Borlaug Dialogue),是由諾貝爾經濟獎得主博洛格博士(Norman Borlaug)所創辦與贊助,聚集了世界上最重要的農業、糧食與發展領袖。在9月份,將博洛格獎章(Norman E. Borlaug Medallion)頒給了聯合國前秘書長安南(Kofi Annan),以表彰他對改善糧食安全上的承諾。

Mediatrice Mukumurenzi在收割玉米,盧安達Kamonyi區,2009年7月。 圖片節錄自:Trocaire相本。「我們不能忘記,非洲的婦女生產了大部分的糧食,但是他們在經濟和社會地位上卻特別弱勢。」安南說,「我們需要實際的措施來消除障礙,從田間到市場,透過價值鏈,讓她們擁有發言權和擁有股份的權利。」

安南在現在世界輿論的氣氛下看到希望。「從來沒有一個像這樣集體改變的動力,」他說,「包含了民間組織、慈善基金與跨國企業。糧食與營養安全現在已經在發展議題上坐穩首要的位置。」

還有很多問題有待克服。聯合國新的人道救援官員在完成為期3天於尼日(Niger)的訪問後警告,全世界必須在根本上解決非洲薩赫勒地區(Sahel region)周期性的糧食問題,尼日有一半的人口需要糧食援助。

「營養不良並非只是因為缺乏食物,也與疾病、缺乏乾淨用水以及資訊匱乏有關。」人道事務副秘書長阿莫絲(Valerie Amos)在世界糧食日上說道。

她也對尼日的人口問題提出警告。該國目前人口以達1500萬,預計在2050年達到5000萬人。

她呼籲實施更有效的家庭計畫,阿莫絲說,依照尼日目前以及預測的糧食生產力,這樣的成長是「非永續的」。

而富裕國家也響應對饑民提供糧食的呼籲。

9月份的聯合國千囍發展目標高峰會中,世界領導人特別重視對赤貧與飢餓的消滅,其中包括去年G-8與G-20工業國220億美金的的投資承諾,也注意到發展中國家領導人對糧食安全投資的意識正在成長。

美國與愛爾蘭以千囍發展目標峰會為背景,推動聯合國的擴大營養框架,這是一項由100個國際合作夥伴共同認可的策略,以戰勝營養不良問題。

美國駐聯合國大使萊斯(Susan Rice)解釋說,「這框架其中的一個模板,改變生活與未來的1千天,」是發展中國家、多邊組織、捐助國政府、民間社會以及私人單位的共同承諾,用以建立具體的基準,以提升從懷孕到兩歲期間,產婦與兒童的營養。

「戰勝飢餓的根源符合美國的利益,是由服務全人類而得的,」萊斯說,「這項運動承諾改善全球的生活水準,並對投資者提供更高的回報;促進廣泛的經濟成長,並且透過投資在我們共同的人性上,強化我們的共同安全。」

United Against Hunger Campaign Offers Hope for the Hungry
ROME, Italy, October 18, 2010 (ENS)

Chronic hunger grips one in every seven people alive today. Every six seconds, a child dies from hunger-related causes and more than 200 million children suffer from undernutrition, according to the latest United Nations figures.

On the occasion of this year's World Food Day, which falls every year on October 16, Pope Benedict XVI, Rwanda's President Paul Kagame and Jacques Diouf, director-general of the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization called for global unity to take resolute and concrete actions against hunger by producing more food in the countries where hungry people live.

This year's theme, United Against Hunger, seeks to rally all sectors of society to feed the world's more than one billion hungry people. "Achieving food security is not the responsibility of one single party; it is the responsibility of all of us," Dr. Diouf said.

Dr. Diouf launched an online petition to reflect the moral outrage of the situation. The "1 billion hungry project" reaches out to people through social media, inviting everyone to sign the anti-hunger petition at www.1billionhungry.org. To date, 1,612,027 people have signed the petition.

In a statement to the World Food Day ceremony in Rome, Pope Benedict XVI said, "Everyone - from individuals to the organizations of civil society, states and international institutions - needs to give priority to one of the most urgent goals for the human family: freedom from hunger."

"An important step forward was the international community's recent decision to protect the right to water which, as the FAO has always maintained, is essential to human nutrition, to rural activities and to the conservation of nature," the Pope said.

President Kagame said, "Becoming self-sufficient in food production cannot be separated from good governance. In most developing countries, it remains the responsibility of government to create the right climate for farmers, especially smallholder farmers and allied agro-businesses. Ultimately, sustainable food security will be obtained within the overall framework of poverty eradication."

Kanayo Nwanze, president of the International Fund for Agricultural Development said, "Let us look at things from the angle of opportunities. People bemoan the fact that in Africa only six percent of land is irrigated or that the average level of fertilizer used in Africa is only one tenth of the world average."

Josette Sheeran, executive director of the world's largest food aid agency, the UN's World Food Programme, said, "I truly believe now is the time for us to turn our dreams of a world free of hunger into reality."

In his speech on Thursday at the World Food Prize annual international symposium just ahead of World Food Day, Annan said, "Africa is the only continent which does not grow enough food to feed itself. It alone has failed, in recent decades, to see agricultural productivity keep pace with its growing population."

The World Food Prize international symposium, informally known as the Borlaug Dialogue after Nobel Laureate and World Food Prize Founder Dr. Norman Borlaug, brings together the world's foremost leaders in global agriculture, food, and development. In September, Annan was awarded the Norman E. Borlaug Medallion by the World Food Prize Foundation in recognition of his commitment to improving food security.

"We cannot forget that, the women who produce most of Africa's food are particularly disadvantaged economically and socially," Annan said. "We need practical measures from field to market to remove these obstacles so they have a voice and a stake right through the value chain."

Annan sees hope in the current climate of world opinion. "Never before has there been such a collective drive for change," he said. "This encompasses civil society organizations, philanthropic foundations and multinational corporations. Food and nutrition security now sits firmly and rightly at the top of the development agenda."

There are still plenty of problems to be overcome. After her three-day visit to Niger, where half the population is in need of food assistance, the United Nations' new top humanitarian official warned that the world must tackle the root causes of cyclical food crises in Africa's Sahel region.

"Malnutrition is not due only to a lack of food, but it is also linked to disease, lack of clean water, lack of information," said Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs Valerie Amos on World Food Day.

She also sounded a warning on Niger's population growth. While the country's population currently stands at 15 million, it is predicted to reach 50 million by 2050.
Calling for better family planning, Amos said such a surge is "unsustainable" given Niger's current and projected food production capacity.

And the rich countries are responding to calls for help to feed the hungry.

At the United Nations Millennium Development Goals Summit in September, world leaders devoted special attention to the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, including $22 billion in investments committed last year by the G-8 and G-20 industrialized countries, and noted a growing recognition among leaders of developing countries about the need to invest in food security.

The Millennium Development Goals Summit served as the backdrop for the United States and Ireland to jumpstart the UN's Scaling Up Nutrition framework, a strategy endorsed by 100 international partners to battle undernutrition.

Rice explained, "One plank of this framework, "1,000 Days: Change a Life, Change the Future," is a joint commitment by developing countries, multilateral organizations, donor governments, civil society and the private sector to set concrete benchmarks that accelerate progress toward improving maternal and child nutrition from pregnancy through age two."

"Combating hunger's root causes serves America's interests by serving the interests of all people," said Rice. "This movement promises improvement in global standards of living, delivering higher returns for its investments; promotes broad-based economic growth; and reinforces our common security by investing in our common humanity."

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導