哺乳動物、鳥類、魚類、植物 亞馬遜發現 1200種新物種 | 環境資訊中心

哺乳動物、鳥類、魚類、植物 亞馬遜發現 1200種新物種

2010年11月01日
摘譯自2010年10月26日ENS日本,名古屋報導;洪美惠編譯;蔡麗伶審校

在亞馬遜的自然生態至少發現1200種新物種,從1999年到2009年的10年期間,平均每3天發現一個新物種,全球保育組織世界自然基金會(WWF)在26日表示。

巴西鳥類學家Alexandre Aleixo與曲線嘴鳥(scythebill),圖片來自:Zig Koch / WWF。WWF在「活生生的亞馬遜,1999-2009 十年大發現」(Amazon Alive! : A Decade of Discoveries 1999-2009)報告中表示,和同時期的其他高度生物多樣性區域,包括:婆羅洲、剛果盆地和東喜馬拉雅相比,亞馬遜的新物種相當多。

WWF在名古屋的聯合國生物多樣性公約會議上,面對193個國家的代表詳細介紹了新發現的39種哺乳動物、16種鳥類、55種爬蟲類、216種兩棲類、257種魚類和637種植物。

亞馬遜地區包含了全球最大的雨林和河流系統。該地區橫跨南美洲8個國家和1個海外領地,有3000萬人口。它涵蓋超過600種不同類型的路陸和淡水棲地,從沼澤、草原、山地到低地森林。包括特有種和瀕危動植物,全世界10%的已知物種都居住在亞馬遜。

但在過去50年間,人類已經摧毀了至少17%的亞馬遜雨林,此面積超過委內瑞拉的大小,或是西班牙兩倍大。

由於地區和全球肉品市場快數擴張,作為飼料的大豆和生物燃料對土地的需求增加,導致約有80%亞馬遜地區的砍伐林地已成為牧場。 未來還會有更多土地為了能源用途而清空。

亞馬遜森林不僅庇護地球上最顯著的生命多元性,而且還存儲900-1400億噸的碳。WWF說,即便是因為喪失更多森林而釋放出一部分碳,以及改變土地用途,都將惡化全球暖化的情況,並危及地球上的生物。

今天(10月26日)在名古屋,巴西環境部發表亞馬遜保護區計劃( Amazon Region Protected Areas Program,ARPA)第一階段的成果。為確保長期的資源、保護亞馬遜的生物多樣性,ARPA計畫於2003年建立,目前是世界上最大的熱帶雨林保護計劃。

在2009年結束的ARPA第一階段,創建了44個保護區,另外還有62個還在建置中。整體新區域面積高達2400萬公頃。

巴西政府還為保護區設立基金,目前已經募到2500萬美元。

Mico acariensi, 里約狨猴(Rio Acari marmoset),圖片來自:Georges Néron / WWF。巴西的目標是未來7年在亞馬遜建立2千萬公頃的新保護區,1千萬公頃做為保護區,另外1000萬公頃做為永續利用。

透過整併現有的保護區,建立和整合新的保護區,如果目標能夠達成,在2017年以前該方案將可保護6千萬公頃亞馬遜森林。

亞馬遜物種資產需要保護棲地才得以保存,每年才可發現新物種。

WWF表示,1999-2009年期間,在亞馬遜河流域發現到39種新的哺乳類,包括7種猴子、1種粉紅淡水豚、2種豪豬、8種小老鼠、9種蝙蝠、6種小袋鼠、5種大鼠、和1種天竺鼠。

亞馬遜淡水豚,又稱粉紅淡水豚,學名 Inia geoffrensis 。圖片來自:Fernando Trujillo, Fundacion Omacha / WWF。2000年發現的里約狨猴(Rio Acari marmoset),學名 Mico acariensi,是7種新猴子之一,居住在亞馬遜低地雨林,是巴西特有物種。目前還沒有做過野外研究,因此沒有關於牠的族群以及重大威脅等的可靠資料。

科學家在1830年代記錄到亞馬遜淡水豚,又稱粉紅淡水豚,學名 Inia geoffrensis

最引人注目的一個新物種Ranitomeya amazonica ,是一種有毒箭蛙。牠的身上有著紅色和黃色的火焰圖案,腿部則有水滴狀圖案。

Ranitomeya amazonica ,是一種有毒箭蛙。牠的身上有著紅色和黃色的火焰圖案,腿部則有水滴狀圖案。圖片來自:Lars K / WWF。這種蛙的主要棲息地是在祕魯伊基托斯( Iquitos )附近的洛雷托( Loreto)地區潮濕的低地森林,它也在秘魯Alpahuayo Mishana國家自然保護區被發現過。

過去10年,在亞馬遜發現到1種烏龜,28種蛇和26種蜥蜴。

70多年前,來自玻利維亞的亞馬遜省東北部,鑑定出第一個新種蟒蛇,2002年被描述。接著在玻利維亞潘多省(Bolivia's Pando province)沖積平原也發現到。 這種4公尺長的Eunectes beniensiswas,起初認為是綠色和黃色的蟒蛇雜交的後代,但後來確定是一獨立的新種。

鮮紅、眼盲、體型袖珍,這種名為Phreatobius dracunculus的魚,是在里約帕爾多(Rio Pardo)村人挖井時發現到的。圖片來自:Janice Muriel Cunha / WWF。Pyrilia aurantiocephala 是真鸚鵡科的成員,具有明顯禿頭,並呈現明亮光譜色彩,只存在巴西的馬德拉河(Madeira)下游和塔巴赫斯河(Tapajos)上游少數區域。由於失去棲地導致族群數量稀少,此物種已被列為瀕危等級。

在巴西朗多尼亞州(Rondonia, Brazil)的地下水裡,人們發現到一新種鯰魚。鮮紅、眼盲、體型袖珍,這種名為Phreatobius dracunculus的魚,是在里約帕爾多(Rio Pardo)村人挖井時發現到的。他們被困在取水的水桶中。在該地區其他20口井中的12口井,也發現到該物種。

Bromelia araujoi,新發現的鳳梨科(Bromeliaceae),和鳳梨同科。圖片來自: E. Esteves Pereira / WWF。在過去10年中,已記錄到有著驚人多樣性的數百種新植物。這些植物分佈在廣泛的植物科別(family),包括草本科、多年生植物和球莖開花植物、樹木和灌木、藤蔓植物、蕨類植物和百合花。

 

 

 

 

1,200 New Amazon Species Discovered: Mammals, Birds, Fish, Plants
NAGOYA, Aichi, Japan, October 26, 2010 (ENS)

At least 1,200 new species have been discovered in the Amazon ecosystem, at an average rate of one every three days during the decade from 1999 through 2009, the global conservation organization WWF revealed today in a new report.

This is a greater number of species than the combined total of new species found over a similar 10-year period in other areas of high biological diversity - including Borneo, the Congo Basin and the Eastern Himalayas, WWF said in the report, "Amazon Alive!: A Decade of Discoveries 1999-2009."

Presented to delegates from 193 countries at the UN Convention on Biodiversity in Nagoya, the WWF report details the discoveries of 39 mammals, 16 birds, 55 reptiles, 216 amphibians, 257 fish and 637 plants - all new to science.

The Amazon region encompasses the largest rainforest and river system on Earth. The region spans eight South American countries and one overseas territory, and is home to 30 million people. It consists of over 600 different types of terrestrial and freshwater habitats, from swamps to grasslands to montane and lowland forests. The Amazon is inhabited by 10 percent of the world's known species, including endemic and endangered plants and animals.

But during the last 50 years, humans have destroyed at least 17 percent of the Amazon rainforest - an area greater than the size of Venezuela, or twice the size of Spain.

The rapid expansion of regional and global markets for meat, soy and biofuels has increased the demand for land; about 80 percent of deforested areas in the Amazon have become cattle pastures. More clearing has been done to meet energy demands.

The Amazon forests not only shelter the most outstanding diversity of life on Earth, but also store 90-140 billion tons of carbon. WWF warns that releasing even a portion of this carbon through further forest loss and land use change, would accelerate global warming, compromising life on Earth as we know it.

Today in Nagoya, the Brazilian Ministry of Environment presented the results of the first phase of the Amazon Region Protected Areas Program. Created in 2003 to ensure long-term resources to protect the Amazon's biodiversity, ARPA has become the world's largest rainforest conservation program.

The first phase, which ended in 2009, created 44 protected areas and set the establishment of another 62 in motion. The new areas total 24 million hectares.

The Brazilian government also has created a Fund for Protected Areas, which has raised US$25 million to date.

Brazil aims to create 20 million hectares of new protected areas in the Amazon during the next seven years: 10 million hectares of protected areas, and 10 million hectares designated for sustainable use.

If this goal is achieved, the program will have protected 60 million hectares of Amazon forests by 2017 through the consolidation of existing protected areas and the establishment and consolidation of new units.

The wealth of Amazon species needs all the protected habitat that can be preserved, and each year more new species are being discovered.

WWF said today that during the decade 1999-2009, 39 new mammals were found in the Amazon, including seven monkeys, a pink river dolphin, two porcupines, eight mice, nine bats, six opossums, five rats and a guinea pig.

One of the seven new monkey species is an inhabitant of the lowland Amazon rainforest. The Rio Acari marmoset, Mico acariensi, discovered in 2000, is a marmoset species endemic to Brazil. It has not been studied in the wild, and there is currently no reliable information on its population status or major threats.

The Amazon River dolphin, or pink river dolphin, was recorded by scientists in the 1830s, and given the scientific name of Inia geoffrensis.
One of the most colorful new species is the Ranitomeya amazonica, a poison dart frog with a red and yellow pattern that looks like flames on its head, and legs patterned like water drops.

The frog's main habitat is lowland moist forest near the Iquitos area in the region of Loreto, Peru and it has also been seen in the Alpahuayo Mishana National Reserve in Peru.

A turtle, 28 snakes and 26 lizards have been discovered in the Amazon in the last 10 years.

The first new species of anaconda identified in more than 70 years was described in 2002 from Bolivia's northeastern Amazon province, and then found also in the floodplains of Bolivia's Pando province. The four meter (13 foot) longEunectes beniensiswas snake was at first believed to be the result of hybridization between green and yellow anacondas, but was later determined to be a distinct species.

A member of the true parrot family, the Pyrilia aurantiocephala has an extraordinary bald head, and displays a brilliant spectrum of colors. Known only from a few sites in the Lower Madeira and Upper Tapajos rivers in Brazil, the species already has been listed as Near Threatened, due to its small population, which is declining due to habitat loss.

A new species of catfish was found that lives in subterranean waters in the state of Rondonia, Brazil. Bright red, blind and tiny, the fish Phreatobius dracunculus was first found after a well was dug in the village of Rio Pardo, when they were trapped in buckets used to extract water. The species has since been found in another 12 of 20 wells in the region.

Within the last decade, hundreds of new plants, with a staggering diversity, have been recorded. The plants are from a wide range of plant families and include herbaceous, perennials and bulbous flowering plants, trees and shrubs, vines, ferns and lilies.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導

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