58國「海上30天」計畫 破獲500多起海洋污染犯罪 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

58國「海上30天」計畫 破獲500多起海洋污染犯罪

2018年11月20日
環境資訊中心外電;姜唯 翻譯;林大利 審校;稿源:ENS

今年10月,行動代號「30 Days at Sea」的國際執法行動,總共查獲500多件海洋污染違規行為,包括船隻非法排放石油和垃圾、拆船、違反船舶排放法規、污染河流和陸地廢水逕流入海。

這場長達一個月的跨國行動,集結全球58個國家、276個執法和環境機構攜手參與,由122名國家代表組成的全球網絡負責指揮,牽涉環境、海事和國境機構、國家警察部隊、海關和港務當局,執行超過5200次的檢查工作、185次深入調查,乃至後續的逮捕和起訴程序。

包括國際刑警組織在內的百家跨國機構執行海洋污染執法計畫「30 Days at Sea」。圖片來源:Interpol。
包括國際刑警組織在內的百家跨國機構執行海洋污染執法計畫「30 Days at Sea」。圖片來源:Interpol。

「犯罪分子認為海洋污染是一種低風險犯罪,沒有真正的受害者。這是錯的,國際刑警組織和合作夥伴正透過這項行動證明這一點,」國際刑警組織秘書長史塔克(Jürgen Stock)說,「海洋污染危害全球環境健康,破壞永續發展,需要有堅實的全球安全架構,在其中進行跨機構、跨部門的合作和因應措施。」

此次行動查獲的污染案件包括,菲律賓一處畜牧業廢棄物傾倒入沿海水域,嚴重污染當地社區採集貝類和兒童遊玩的海灘。

在德國有一艘船隻將600公升棕櫚油倒入海中;在迦納發現疑似非法遺棄在海上的數加侖瓶裝廢油;在阿爾巴尼亞,主管機關採取預防性措施,成功防止裝載約500公升石油的沉船漏油,引發進一步環境災難;法國水域兩艘船隻相撞,也在當局的預防性措施之下,沒讓污染擴大。

新技術讓當局的海洋污染監控能力更上層樓。阿根廷和瑞典使用衛星影像,加拿大和義大利運用空中監視,尼日、印尼和巴基斯坦採用無人機和夜視攝影機;卡達和挪威轉而重視預防,運用可見的監視技術驅使人們遵守法規。

聯合國環境署長索爾海姆(Erik Solheim)說,海洋污染是全球有機會在未來十年內成功解決的問題。

「但我們需要執法單位的協助,確保海洋污染犯罪者無法開脫。執法單位必須在全球與專家建立強而有力的國際網絡,方可解決這個破壞性的犯罪問題,同時確保提供全人類一個更健康、安全的地球。」歐洲刑警組織指揮部副執行主任賈莫(Wil van Gemert)回應道。

為響應加強環境犯罪國際執法,國際刑警組織污染犯罪工作小組啟動「30 Days at Sea」,由國際刑警組織的環境安全計劃與歐洲刑警組織密切合作,執行一系列合作執法行動,包括:

  • 加拿大、美國、印尼和東帝汶等國的聯合戰術規劃;
  • 全球部署跨機構工作小組,如南部非洲多個國家級機構為打擊海洋污染犯罪長達一年的合作行動;
  • 雙邊聯合調查,如荷蘭與南非,德國與比利時;
  • 了解污染犯罪

「30 Days at Sea」行動接下來將與聯合國環境署合作展開公眾宣傳活動,說明海洋污染對經濟發展和人類及環境安全的影響。

Interpol Operation Exposes Marine Pollution Crime
LYON, France, November 14, 2018 (ENS)

A month-long international law enforcement operation against maritime pollution has revealed hundreds of violations and exposed serious cases of contamination worldwide.

Code named 30 Days at Sea, the operation in October saw 276 law enforcement and environmental agencies across 58 countries detect more than 500 offenses. The crimes included illegal discharges of oil and garbage from vessels, shipbreaking, breaches of ship emissions regulations, pollution on rivers and land-based runoff to the sea.

Steered by a global network of 122 national coordinators, 30 Days at Sea involved environmental, maritime and border agencies, national police forces, customs, and port authorities.

More than 5,200 inspections have resulted in at least 185 investigations, with arrests and prosecutions anticipated.

“Criminals believe marine pollution is a low-risk crime with no real victims. This is a mistake and one which Interpol and our partners are addressing as demonstrated by this operation,” said Interpol Secretary General Jürgen Stock.

“Marine pollution creates health hazards worldwide which undermine sustainable development and requires a multi-agency, multi-sector cooperative response within a solid global security architecture,” said Stock.

Serious contamination was identified in the dumping of animal farm waste into Philippine coastal waters where local communities collect shellfish and children play.

In Germany, a vessel discharged 600 liters of palm oil into the sea. Ghana uncovered gallons of waste oil in large bottles thought to be illegally dumped at sea.

Authorities prevented an environmental disaster in Albania by securing waters around a sinking vessel containing some 500 liters of oil.

Similarly, the pollution threat resulting from the collision of two ships in French waters was contained thanks to preventive action during the operation.

Innovative technologies enabled authorities to detect offenses, including the use of satellite images in Argentina and Sweden; aerial surveillance in Canada and Italy; drones in Nigeria, Indonesia and Pakistan; and night vision cameras.

In a shift towards prevention, visible surveillance technologies used in Qatar and Norway resulted in stricter compliance with regulations.

UN Environment Executive Director Erik Solheim said that the issue of illegal marine pollution is one that global communities may be able to tackle successfully in the next decade.

“But we need the help of our law enforcement partners to make sure that there is no immunity for the perpetrators of marine pollution crime,” said Solheim.

“This is why law enforcement must team up on a global scale to build strong international links with specialized experts so we can tackle this devastating crime while ensuring a healthier, safer planet for all,” responded Wil van Gemert, deputy executive director of Europol, Operations Directorate.

Interpol’s Pollution Crime Working Group launched Operation 30 Days at Sea in response to a call to boost international law enforcement action against emerging environmental crime through action in the field.

Coordinated by Interpol’s Environmental Security Programme in close partnership with Europol, 30 Days at Sea was driven by a range of cooperative enforcement actions, including:

* – Joint tactical planning between countries such as Canada and the United States, as well as Indonesia with Timor Leste;
* – The global deployment of multi-agency task forces, including a year-long cooperative effort between South African national agencies targeting pollution crimes at sea;
* – Bilateral joint investigations such as The Netherlands with South Africa, and Germany with Belgium;
* – Understanding pollution crime

30 Days at Sea is followed by an awareness campaign in partnership with UN Environment to illustrate the impact marine pollution has on economic development and human and environmental security.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

作者

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。

林大利

於特有生物研究保育中心服務,小鳥和棲地是主要的研究對象。是龜毛的讀者,認為龜毛是探索世界的美德。