偷排、廢棄物走私不斷 國際刑警組織30天查緝1600起海洋污染 | 環境資訊中心

偷排、廢棄物走私不斷 國際刑警組織30天查緝1600起海洋污染

2021年05月11日
環境資訊中心外電;姜唯 翻譯;林大利 審校;稿源:ENS

國際刑警組織Interpol主導的「海上30天3.0」全球行動,發現數以千計海洋污染嫌疑人、企業和犯罪網絡,其中數十人已遭到逮捕。

國際刑警組織Interpol主導的「海上30天3.0」全球行動,在各大洲查緝海洋犯罪。照片來源:Interpol

國際聯手出擊 動員3萬4000次查緝海洋犯罪

在歐亞兩區域主管機關的合作之下,「海上30天3.0」也發現一個在兩地間販運塑膠廢棄物的大型犯罪網,目前共逮捕其中22名嫌疑犯,擋下數千噸原本要被非法運輸到亞洲的塑膠垃圾。國際刑警組織說,這些垃圾原本很可能會在亞洲被非法傾倒入海洋。

3月進行的「海上30天3.0」共有67個國家/地區、300個有關單位參與,包括中、韓、英、美、印度等國。他們在海上、內陸水道、沿海地區和港口,進行了3萬4000次查緝海洋污染的行動,該次數前所未有。

國際刑警組織秘書長斯托克(Jürgen Stock)說:「幸好有靈活的全球性執法網絡,自『海上30天1.0』起,我們的巡查次數增加了一倍以上,這清楚說明國際社會不會容忍環境犯罪。」

經過五個月事前的情報收集和分析,國際刑警組織找出犯罪熱點和嫌疑犯,並採取直接行動,突破「蓄意污染全球海洋航道的犯罪」。

厄瓜多當局檢查污水處理廠廢水。照片來源:Interpol

國際間查獲1600起犯罪活動 包含非法排放、販運廢棄物

「海上30天3.0」在戰略階段的初步結果包括在各大洲共查獲1600起海洋污染犯罪行為,並啟動後續的罰款和追蹤調查。這段期間執法機關共發現以下三點。

一、海上發生近500次非法污染行為,包括排油、非法拆船和船舶排放硫化物

二、沿海地區和河流中,發生1000起違法污染行為,包括非法排放污水、汞、塑膠和其他污染物,造成嚴重水污染並流入海洋

三、130起港口販運廢棄物案件

各國可以利用國際刑警組織的大數據庫和分析功能,尋找污染案件與其他嚴重犯罪如欺詐、貪腐、逃稅、洗錢、盜版和非法捕魚之間的關聯,而且國際刑警組織的污染犯罪工作小組會主動協助成員國進行後續行動和情報分析。

該行動發現 疫情間一次性醫療廢棄物案件增

國際刑警組織說,隨著許多執法資源因為疫情而重新分配,罪犯已迅速利用環境安全中的漏洞來降低被查緝的風險。

「海上30天」行動發現了許多不同種類的犯罪。由於疫情的關係,一次性醫療用品廢棄物明顯增加,如用過的口罩和手套,「海上30天」使13宗涉及醫療廢棄物的刑事案件進入訴訟程序。

印尼的主管機關發現了65起漏油事件,並扣留了兩艘試圖關閉定位系統和隱藏國旗來逃避偵查的船隻。克羅埃西亞發現一批金屬廢棄物走私,此外,歐洲曾非法運送有害廢金屬到納米比亞。

歐洲、亞洲和非洲數個國家發現,受到污染的或混合金屬廢棄物,被當作廢金屬非法運送。

國際刑警組織說,隨著金價上漲,非洲、中美洲和南美洲的執法機構都在追踪非法採礦,「非法採礦經常連帶發生汞排放,造成毀滅性的污染。」


克羅埃西亞發現一批金屬廢棄物走私。照片來源:Interpol

Police Find 1,600+ Marine Pollution Crimes in 30 Days
LYON, France, May 4, 2021 (ENS)

Thousands of suspects, companies and criminal networks engaged in maritime pollution have been detected and dozens arrested in a global operation led by the international criminal police force, Interpol.

A major criminal network trafficking plastic waste between Europe and Asia was exposed, due to cooperation between authorities from both regions. To date, 22 suspects in the plastic trafficking ring have been arrested and thousands of tons of waste have been prevented from being illegally shipped to Asia, where Interpol says it would likely have been dumped, generating marine litter.

Operation 30 Days at Sea 3.0, which took place during March, involved simultaneous action by 300 agencies across 67 countries. They conducted an unprecedented 34,000 inspections at sea and on inland waterways, in coastal areas and ports to detect marine pollution violations.

“Although this is the third edition of 30 Days at Sea, it is never the same exercise,” Interpol Secretary General Jürgen Stock said. “The threat of pollution crime is constantly evolving, endangering the air we breathe, our water and soil. Although this is the third edition of 30 Days at Sea, it is never the same exercise.”

“It is thanks to a global yet agile network that we have seen the number of inspections more than double since the first edition,” Stock said, “a clear sign that the international community will not stand for criminal attacks on our environment.”

Direct action followed five months of intelligence collection and analysis that enabled the identification of specific hotspots and suspects behind what Interpol calls, “the criminal, deliberate pollution of the world’s waterways.”

Preliminary results from the operation’s tactical phase included the detection of 1,600 marine pollution offenses, triggering fines and follow-up investigations across all continents.

Law enforcement authorities discovered:

– Nearly 500 illegal acts of pollution committed at sea, including oil discharges, illegal shipbreaking and sulfur emissions from vessels

– 1,000 pollution offenses in coastal areas and in rivers, including illegal discharges of sewage, mercury, plastics, and other contaminants, leading to serious water contamination which flows into the oceans

– 130 cases of waste trafficking through ports

Countries were able to connect pollution crimes with other serious offenses such as fraud, corruption, tax evasion, money laundering, piracy, and illegal fishingby using Interpol’s extensive databases and analytical capabilities.

Interpol has offered to assist member countries in their follow-up operations and intelligence analysis with support from its Pollution Crime Working Group.

With many enforcement resources being reassigned to tackle the pandemic, criminals have been quick to exploit growing vulnerabilities in environmental security and reduced risk of detection, Interpol says.

Many different kinds of crimes were discovered during this 30 Days at Sea operation.

Growing trends included COVID-19 disposable items such as used masks and gloves, with 13 criminal cases involving medical waste opened as a result of the operation.

Authorities in Indonesia detected 65 oil spills and detained two vessels which tried to evade detection by turning off geolocation systems and concealing their national flags.

Elsewhere, an illegal shipment of metal waste was uncovered in Croatia, and authorities found that hazardous metal scraps had been illegally shipped from Europe to Namibia.

Several countries from Europe, Asia and Africa reported illegal shipments of contaminated or mixed metal waste falsely declared as metal scraps. 

With the value of gold on the rise, law enforcement agencies across Africa, Central and South America worked to track illegal mining, “which often results in devastating contamination due to mercury discharges,” Interpol said.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

作者

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。

林大利

於特有生物研究保育中心服務,小鳥和棲地是主要的研究對象。是龜毛的讀者,認為龜毛是探索世界的美德。