巴西保護氣候 亞馬遜森林砍伐創新低 | 環境資訊中心

巴西保護氣候 亞馬遜森林砍伐創新低

2010年12月09日
摘譯自2010年12月1日ENS巴西,巴西利亞報導;洪美惠編譯;蔡麗伶審校

巴西總統和環境部長宣布項新的較低森林砍伐率。 圖片來自:環境部。 巴西總統盧拉1日在巴西利亞宣佈,巴西自1988年開始使用衛星觀察林地以來,目前毀林的速度已降到最低。此一成就可減少因毀林而釋出溫室氣體,有助於保護全球氣候。

巴西國家空間研究所(INPE),在其年度報告中說,2009年8月至2010年7月間,毀林面積為新低的2,490平方英里。

和2008年8月至2009年7月間相比,去年巴西減緩亞馬遜森林砍伐率達45.7%。

2009年,巴西通過法律,並承諾在2020年前削減溫室氣體排放量到36.1%和38.9%之間。

減低毀林率是巴西減低溫室氣體排放策略的關鍵部分,官方估計,達成減低毀林的目標,就可以減少溫室氣體排放量高達24.7%。

2010年10月,盧拉總統宣布,巴西的減低8成亞馬遜森林砍伐目標,將在2016年達成,這比原先承諾提早了4年。

用INPE的「幾乎及時(near-real time)」毀林監測系統分析衛星圖像,可使巴西環境研究所和可再生研究所在毀林行為發生時,藉著聯邦警察的支持,建立準確和有效的執法行動,以遏止非法砍伐。

盧拉總統1日在巴西利亞簽署了一項法令,設立亞馬遜生態經濟總體區域劃分倡議(Amazon Ecological-Economic 巴西亞馬遜熱帶雨林燃燒的情況。圖片節錄自:Apoloniox70相本。 Macrozoning initiative),作為引導並促進亞馬遜地區可持續發展的策略。該倡議將亞馬遜地區劃分成10區,依據可持續性準則,指定每個區可進行的經濟活動性質。

遏止農業區擴張與在原生植被區域放牧,並在已因農業活動而遭砍伐的地區進行植樹,這些措施可以避免毀林行為。

該法令規定,依據總體區域劃分倡議下的準則,國家貨幣委員會應對亞馬遜農村和農工業活動進行財務限制等,設立新的規定。財政和經濟激勵措施將用在鼓勵擴大在該地區的可持續活動。

總統簽署後不多久,巴西央行就宣布,對於那些要在新砍伐林地區域種植大豆的農民的農業信貸,將予以否決。

Brazil Protects Climate With Record Low Amazon Deforestation
BRASILIA, Brazil, December 1, 2010 (ENS)

Brazil has reduced destruction of its Amazon rainforest to the lowest rate since satellite observations began in 1988, President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva announced today in Brasilia. The achievement helps protect the global climate as deforestation causes greenhouse gases to increase in the atmosphere.

Brazil's National Institute for Space Research, INPE, said in its annual report that deforestation reached a record low of 2,490 square miles (6,450 square kilometers) between August 2009 and July 2010.

Last year, Brazil slowed the rate of Amazon deforestation by 45.7 percent from August 2008 to July 2009.

In 2009, Brazil passed into law a commitment to cut its projected greenhouse gas emissions between 36.1 and 38.9 percent by 2020.

Deforestation reduction is a critical part of Brazil's strategy to reduce national emissions; official calculations estimate that meeting deforestation reduction targets could reduce Brazil's greenhouse gas emissions by up to 24.7 percent.

In October 2010, President Lula announced that Brazil's 80 percent Amazon deforestation reduction target would be met by 2016, four years earlier than promised.

Satellite images analyzed by INPE's near-real time deforestation detection system have enabled the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources, with support from the Federal Police, to set up precise and effective enforcement operations to halt illegal deforestation as it happens.

During today's event in Brasilia, President Lula signed a decree establishing the Amazon Ecological-Economic Macrozoning initiative, a set of strategies to guide and stimulate sustainable development in the Amazon region.

The document divides the Legal Amazon region into 10 zones and specifies the nature of economic activity that can be carried out in each of them, in accordance with sustainability criteria.

Deforestation will be avoided by halting the expansion of agriculture and cattle ranching into areas of native vegetation, and fostering the use and recovery of degraded lands for agribusiness.

The decree establishes that the National Monetary Committee shall define new rules restricting finance for rural and agro-industrial activities in the Amazon, according to the criteria included in the Macrozoning initiative. Fiscal and economic incentives will encourage the expansion of sustainable activities in the region.

Within hours, the Bank of Brazil announced that it will veto agricultural credit for soy farmers who want to plant in newly cleared areas of the forest.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導