德國新法上路 電動車享特殊路權 停車優惠 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

德國新法上路 電動車享特殊路權 停車優惠

2015年01月05日
摘譯自2014年9月29日ENS德國,柏林報導;江佳芸編譯;龐中培審校

位於柏林的鐵雪龍電動車充電站。(來源:托尼·韋伯斯特)為促進電動車發展,德國政府於今(2015)年年初開始,執行一連串的電動車的新法案,包括給予電動車優惠停車、公車專用道使用權以及特別通道許可等措施。此法案於去年9月24日通過,預定執行時效至2030年6月30日。

德國交通部長杜布林特(Alexander Dobrindt)表示:「我們給予電動車額外的鼓勵,未來也會擴及各地,地方政府可自行決定當地如何推廣電動車,如免費停車或特殊道路權等。」

德國電動車 新年享多項優惠

新法主要適用以電池動力車、外部充電混合動力車以及燃料電池車。目前來說,充電式混合動力車的碳排放量上限為每公里50克,電力行駛至少可開30公里。2018年起,德國政府將會把純電力行駛的最低車程提升至40公里。

根據新法案,電動車在車牌上會有特別標示,這同時為外國車輛帶來好處。因為其他國家的車輛雖無法取得德國牌照,但是可以得到特別標示。

新法案也確保各地充電站旁保留停車位,以免費停車獎勵電動車;地方當局還可准許電動車通過空氣與噪音管制區,並在狀況許可下開放公車專道給電動車,不過仍需以交通當局做決定。

環境部長亨德里克斯(Barbara Hendricks)說:「這個法律讓各地能夠以自己社區的特點去推廣電動車,例如控制空氣汙染。同時我們也正在建立一個能讓城市更適合發展不同交通方式的基礎。」

德國夯電動車 新法獲業界認同 

汽車業也歡迎這項新措施,德國汽車工業協會總裁(Matthias Wissmann)說:「電動車的身分證將有益於電動車的發展;能夠使用公車專用道和免費停車,將提高人們駕駛電動車的意願。這個法案的方向是正確的,這些研究和發展必須持續下去。其他國家的汽車經銷商並沒有多少電動車的車種,這正是我們的優勢,德國在電動車的發展上是世界一流的。」

至今年年底,德國市場上共有17種電動車種,到了2015年將新增12種。

德國交通運輸論壇也抱持樂觀的態度。德國交通運輸討論會的董事海拉爾(Thomas Hailer)說:「目前讓企業和政府大量使用電動車是很重要的,這樣的有利效應有助於產生新的市場,兩年後私人使用的電動車會變得更便宜。但要做到這件事情,除了國家與地方需要積極推動外,也需減免商業電動車的稅收,並且盡速降低購買電動車的利率。」

環團反對:再生能源才是王道

不過,環保人士對這項法案並不滿意。

綠黨批評了這項新措施。綠黨交通發言人庫恩(Stephan Kühn)認為杜布林特沒有足夠的能力因應電動車的挑戰。庫恩表示:「交通部長的方針太少而且走錯方向。他目前在推動重型運動越野車和德國生產的馬達,這無法降低石化燃料用量,而且對自然造成傷害。我們需要的是更全面的交通運輸改革以及擴大再生能源的使用量。」

針對這個新法案,支持與反對聲音皆有。自然和生物多樣性保護聯盟(NABU)也批評此這項新措施。

NABU全國執行董事米勒(Leif Miller)說:「開放充電混合動力車上公車專用道,顯示政府對城市缺乏完整認知。目前有越來越多的自行車騎士被迫和公車共用狹窄的車道。根據政府這項措施,一輛能純電力跑30公里的保時捷將可使用公車專用道,這很不合理,也無法真正促進電動車在城市中的發展。」

Germany Offers Perks for Electric Car Drivers
BERLIN, Germany, September 29, 2014 (ENS)

The German government has approved a new law on electromobility, including incentives for EV drivers such as parking privileges, use of bus lanes and special transit access. But environmentalists are not happy with the new law, EurActiv Germany reports.

Green-lighted by the German federal cabinet on Wednesday, the measure is expected to take effect in early 2015 and expire on June 30, 2030.

It covers battery powered vehicles, externally chargeable hybrid cars and fuel cell vehicles.

“We are creating additional incentives for electromobility,” explained German Transportation Minister Alexander Dobrindt.

“In the future, municipalities will be able to choose how to locally promote the use of electric cars, such as offering free parking or special transit rights,” he said.

For plug-in hybrids, carbon dioxide emissions are capped at 50g per kilometer or a minimum of a 30 kilometer (20 mile) range on purely electric power. Starting in 2018, a 40 km range will be the standard for hybrids.

This established minimum range is expected to cover short everyday journeys.

Under the new law, EVs approved in Germany will receive special identification on their numbered license plates.

Electric cars approved outside the country also will receive benefits. Because they cannot receive a German license plate, the legislation says they will be identified by a special sticker.

The law gives municipalities the power to reserve parking spaces at charging stations for electric vehicles and to provide free parking.

Local authorities can dole out special access and transit passes – in areas sensitive to air or noise pollution – and open bus lanes for labeled EVs, when conditions allow. Final decisions are in the hands of traffic control authorities.

“In addition, electric vehicles will be identifiable to anyone at a glance thanks to individual labelling. Because of the growing selection of e-models on the market, and the growing number of e-cars on the roads, sales will continue to rise,” Dobrindt said.

Federal Environment Minister Barbara Hendricks said, “With this law we are giving municipalities the possibility to promote electromobility in a way that makes the most sense for their community, from an air quality control perspective for example. Meanwhile we are creating a foundation to better accommodate alternative forms of mobility in urban development.”

The auto industry welcomed the new measure. The German Automobile Industry Association (VDA) said it expects a boost for electromobility.

“Through individual identification for e-models, these vehicles will be more visible in traffic. Opening up bus lanes and offering free parking areas make driving electric-powered cars more attractive,” said VDA President Matthias Wissmann.

“These incentives must be implemented throughout Germany so that they are convincing to customers,” Wissmann said. “To do this, it is critical to have an approach that includes coordination among the federal government, regions, cities and municipalities.”

“This is a first step in the right direction, which must followed by others,” Wissmann stressed. “Research and development projects should be continued just as training and qualification efforts should be promoted.”

Germany is well-positioned with regard to electromobility, Wissmann pointed out. “In no other country do car dealers have such a large selection of electric models. International assessments show – compared to other countries offering electric cars, Germany’s auto industry is at the top of the list.”

By the end of the year, 17 production models made in Germany will be released to the market. Twelve more will follow in 2015.

The German Transport Forum (DVF), a multi-modal industry association, also welcomed the new legislation.

DVF Managing Director Thomas Hailer said, “Now it is important to get e-vehicles into the fleets of companies and public officials. This has the beneficial side-effect that a market is created, in which used electric cars become available much more cheaply to private users after two years.”

“But to do this,” advised Hailer, “there must be a procurement initiative at the national, regional and municipal levels as well as a move to introduce special tax write-offs for commercially operated vehicles. And credit programs with reduced interest-rate loans for purchasing e-vehicles must be implemented quickly.”

But the Greens are critical of the new law. Stephan Kühn, transportation spokesman from the Bundestag’s Green Party faction, said Transport Minister Dobrindt does not “to any degree” meet the electromobility challenge.

“He is doing too little and going about it the wrong way. As a priority, he is promoting heavy off-road and sports utility vehicles with German-produced electric motors. This is not the way to reduce fuels that are harmful to the environment. What is needed, is a universal approach for all modes of transportation in concert with an expansion of renewables,” said Kühn.

The Nature And Biodiversity Conservation Union (NABU) also criticized the new measure.

“Opening access to bus lanes for electric cars and plug-in hybrids attests to the huge lack of knowledge over the real state of mobility in cities,” said NABU’s national managing director Leif Miller.

“A growing number of cyclists are already forced to share the narrow lane with buses. According to the government’s intentions, a Porsche Cayenne with an electric power range of 30 km will be allowed drive in these bus lanes,” he pointed out.

Miller said he does not see this as contributing to the acceptance of electromobility in cities.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

※ 本文為教育部科學人文跨科際人才培育計畫(簡稱SHS計畫)所屬南區區域推動中心,舉辦「環境新聞編譯工作坊」之成果展現,特別感謝《科學人》編輯群協助審校。