物種消失未減緩 2010全球保育任務失敗! | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

物種消失未減緩 2010全球保育任務失敗!

2010年05月03日
摘譯自2010年4月29日ENS美國,華府報導;段譽豪編譯;蔡麗伶審校

由於世界各國領導人未能履行其承諾,在2010年以前減少全球生物多樣性下降的速度,反而眼睜睜看著生物多樣性下降。一項首次針對2002年生物多樣性公約進行的評估中發現,當初所訂的目標並沒有達成。

根據該評估報告,自1970年以來,人類活動已經使全世界三成的動物族群減少,紅樹林與海草的面積減少了兩成,活體珊瑚的覆蓋率則下降了四成。

「我們的分析顯示,各國政府沒有能達成他們在2002年時所作的承諾:生物多樣性如過去一樣快速下降,我們在減少物種、棲地與生態系統的壓力上取得一些進展,」報告的第一作者布查特博士(Stuart Butchart)說,他隸屬於聯合國環境規劃署世界保育監測中心與國際鳥盟。

這份4月29日發表在《科學》期刊上的報告,比較了30多個以不同面向評估生物多樣性的指標,像是物種族群的改變、滅絕的風險、棲地範圍以及群聚的組成等。

研究發現,生物多樣性下降的速率沒有顯著減少,面臨的壓力反而繼續增加。

「我們的數據顯示,生物多樣性下降的情況不會在2010年停止,但在2010年我們必須對這個問題更加重視,並付出更多力量來關注我們所居住星球上所剩下的物種,」布查特博士說。

這個研究中所使用的指標,是由2010年生物多樣性夥伴(Biodiversity Indicators Partnership)所共同合作發展整合而成的,其中包含了超過40個國際組織與機構。

福斯特(Matt Foster)是國際保育組織(Conservation International)保育成果主任,他說:「生物多樣性急劇的下降影響我們每一個人,最主要的項目是那些原本就十分脆弱,並且倚靠大自然所提供的水、食物與藥品。世界各國領導人2010年10月在日本聚會時,必須更有決心地遏止生物多樣性下降,人類的生存必須仰賴它。」

「聯合國千囍年發展目標(UN Millennium Development Goals)認定生物多樣性對人類福祉的永續性發展做出了重要的貢獻,而這些損失顯然是非永續性的,」聯合國環境署(UNEP)首席科學家阿爾卡莫教授(Joseph Alcamo)說。

這項研究結果將會收錄在第三版的全球生物多樣性展望(Global Biodiversity Outlook)中,這是生物多樣性公約最重要的出版品,將會在5月10日於奈羅比(Nairobi)發表,屆時世界各國政府的代表會聚集討論2010年的目標以及如何解決生物多樣性危機。

布查德博士說:「雖然各國已經為減緩生物多樣性的下降施行了一些重大政策,但這些還是嚴重不足,生物多樣性所面臨的壓力與人類反應之間的差距越來越大。」

該研究指出,一些地區或國家成功的解決了生物多樣性下降的問題,例如巴西的茹魯埃納國家公園(Juruena National Park)劃定了2萬平方公里的保護區、復育特定的物種如歐洲野牛,避免了像是紐西蘭高蹺鴴的滅絕。

「相關政策的回應大多在對的方向,但是其目標、方針和資金則還不夠明確。」生物多樣性公約執行秘書朱格拉夫(Ahmed Djoghlaf)說。

「最重要的是,」他說,「生物多樣性的問題,必須綜合所有地區政府和企業,將生物多樣性的經濟價值充分核算,以做出決策。只有這樣,我們才能找出問題的解決之道。」

※ 簡體中文版評估報告下載:http://www.cbd.int/doc/publications/gbo/gbo3-final-zh.pdf

Biodiversity Target Missed: World Fails to Slow Loss of Animals, Plants
WASHINGTON, DC, April 29, 2010 (ENS)

World leaders have failed to fulfill their commitments to reduce the global rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, and have instead overseen "alarming" biodiversity declines, finds the first assessment of how the targets expressed in the 2002 Convention on Biological Diversity have not been met.

Since 1970, human activities have reduced animal populations by 30 percent, the area of mangroves and sea grasses by 20 percent and the coverage of living corals by 40 percent, the assessment finds.

"Our analysis shows that governments have failed to deliver on the commitments they made in 2002: biodiversity is still being lost as fast as ever, and we have made little headway in reducing the pressures on species, habitats and ecosystems," said the paper's lead author Dr. Stuart Butchart of the United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre and BirdLife International.

Published today in the journal "Science," the assessment compiling more than 30 indicators that measure different aspects of biodiversity such as changes in species' populations and risk of extinction, habitat extent and community composition.

The study found no evidence for a significant reduction in the rate of decline of biodiversity, and also found that the pressures facing biodiversity continue to increase.

"Our data show that 2010 will not be the year that biodiversity loss was halted, but it needs to be the year in which we start taking the issue seriously and substantially increase our efforts to take care of what is left of our planet," Dr. Butchart said.

The indicators used for the study were developed and synthesized through the 2010 Biodiversity Indicators Partnership, a collaboration of over 40 international organizations and agencies.

Matt Foster, director of conservation outcomes at Conservation International, said, "The steep loss of biodiversity is affecting all of us, but mainly those who are already the most vulnerable and dependent on nature for water, food and medicines. World leaders meeting in Japan this October must be more ambitious in halting biodiversity loss - our survival depends on it."

"These losses are clearly unsustainable, since biodiversity makes a key contribution to human well-being and sustainable development, as recognized by the UN Millennium Development Goals," said the UNEP's Chief Scientist Professor Joseph Alcamo.

The results of this study feed into Global Biodiversity Outlook 3, the flagship publication of the Convention on Biological Diversity, to be released in Nairobi on May 10, when government representatives from around the world will meet to discuss the 2010 target and how to address the biodiversity crisis.

Dr. Butchart said, "Although nations have put in place some significant policies to slow biodiversity declines, these have been woefully inadequate, and the gap between the pressures on biodiversity and the responses is getting ever wider."

The study recognizes that there have been some important local or national successes in tackling biodiversity loss, such as the designation of protected areas like the 20,000 square kilometer Juruena National Park in Brazil, the recovery of particular species like the European bison, and the prevention of some extinctions like the black stilt of New Zealand.

"While many responses have been in the right direction, the relevant policies have been inadequately targeted, implemented and funded," said Ahmed Djoghlaf, executive secretary to the Convention on Biological Diversity.

"Above all," he said, "biodiversity concerns must be integrated across all parts of government and business, and the economic value of biodiversity needs to be accounted for adequately in decision making. Only then will we be able to address the problem."