聯合國調查:環境犯罪新手法 掛勾貪污比例最高 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

聯合國調查:環境犯罪新手法 掛勾貪污比例最高

建立於 2017/01/12
摘譯自2016年12月30日ENS法國,里昂報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

去年躍升為全世界第四大犯罪活動的「環境犯罪」,成長速度呈持續加快,根據國際刑警組織(INTERPOL)與聯合國環境規劃署(UNEP)的最新調查,全球80%以上的國家視對抗環境犯罪為重大要務,超過60%的國家表示曾經歷新興環境犯罪手法,並指出跨國組織犯罪集團有越來越複雜的趨勢。

環境犯罪有時是低收入族群不得已的生存辦法,但這些族群的生計實際上是遭到盜獵、非法伐木、非法捕撈或採礦犯罪集團的剝削。此外,有84%的國家表示遇過環境犯罪和其他犯罪型態結合,如貪污(42%)、偽造(39%)、販毒(36%)、網路犯罪(23%)和金融犯罪(17%)。

肯亞國家公園的巡護員。Ninara(CC BY 2.0)

肯亞國家公園的巡護員,站在打擊環境犯罪的第一線。圖片來源:Ninara(CC BY 2.0)

國際刑警組織和聯合國環境規劃署在去年底發表調查報告「環境、和平與安全—威脅的集合」(Environment, Peace and Security – A Convergence of Threats)指出,環境犯罪日新月異而且漸趨複雜,對和平和安全的威脅也越來越高。

這份報告共有約70個國家參與調查,探討全球環境犯罪和組織犯罪與恐怖主義之間的關係。

國際刑警組織秘書長施塔克(Jürgen Stock)表示:「環境犯罪超越國界而且相當邪惡,剝奪國家重要的收入來源、剝奪人民的生計以及社區和平和安全。國際社會必須以行動支持、以政策實行並徹底執法來對抗。」

報告發現,部分非政府武裝組織、恐怖組織和犯罪網路靠著剝削衝突地區的自然資源獲取資金,威脅和平與安全。報告估計,至少有40%的內部衝突和自然資源有關。

「現在起,成員國、國際組織和聯合國必須透過加強資訊分享、加強對平民的保護、落實執法和更深度瞭解衝突原因等方式,協力對抗環境犯罪。」聯合國環境規劃署署長索漢(Erik Solheim)說。

報告建議以跨領域整合的方式解決環境犯罪問題,包括產業之間資訊交換、聚焦環境政策的執行、增加資金上的協助,包括透過政府開發援助( Official Development Assistance,DOA)。

國際刑警組織和聯合國環境規劃署在世界銀行於華盛頓特區舉辦的2016法律、正義與發展週上發表這份報告。11月的第71屆聯合國大會亦呼籲聯合國和國際刑警組織之間加強合作,對抗跨國犯罪和恐怖主義。

Environmental Crime Threatens Global Peace, Security
LYON, France, December 30, 2016 (ENS)

Environmental crime is a national priority for at least 80 percent of countries, with the majority reporting new and more sophisticated criminal activities that increasingly threaten peace and security, finds a new survey by INTERPOL and UN Environment (UNEP).

Some 70 countries were surveyed for their new joint report, “Environment, Peace and Security – A Convergence of Threats,” released earlier this month at the Law, Justice and Development Week 2016 hosted by the World Bank in Washington, DC.

The report focuses on the links between global environmental crime, valued at US$91 to 258 billion annually, and other criminal activities, including organized crime and terrorism.

More than 60 percent of countries surveyed report that they are witnessing new environmental crimes or methods of operation, indicating growing sophistication by transnational organized crime groups.

In addition, 84 percent reported a convergence with other serious crimes, such as corruption (42 percent), counterfeiting (39 per cent), drug trafficking (36 percent), cybercrime (23 percent) and financial crime (17 percent).

INTERPOL Secretary General Jürgen Stock said, “Environmental crime is transnational in scope and insidious in nature. It robs governments of much-needed revenues, people of their livelihoods, and communities of peace and security.”

“The international community needs to support a comprehensive approach by following rhetoric with action, policy with implementation and law with enforcement,” said Stock.

The report found that some non-state armed groups, terrorist groups and criminal networks fund their activities by exploiting natural resources in conflict areas, posing a serious threat to peace and security. It is estimated that at least 40 percent of internal conflicts have a link to natural resources.

“The time has come to meet the threat of environmental crime with a coordinated response from member states, international organizations and the United Nations. Such a response must address the need for improved information sharing, enhanced protection of civilians, better law enforcement and a deeper understanding of the drivers of conflicts,” said Erik Solheim, who heads the UN Environment agency, formerly the UN Environment Programme, UNEP.

With environmental crime sometimes viewed as an alternative to poverty for low-income populations, their financial needs are exploited by criminal groups who rely on them for poaching and illegal logging, fishing or mining.

The report recommends a multidisciplinary approach to tackling environmental crime; greater information exchange across sectors; increased focus on the implementation of environmental policy; and stronger financial support, including through Official Development Assistance.

The report’s publication follows the resolution adopted at the 71st session of the UN General Assembly in November 2016 which calls for enhanced cooperation between the UN and INTERPOL against transnational crime and terrorism.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

作者

蔡麗伶(LiLing Barricman)

In my healing journey and learning to attain the breath awareness, I become aware of the reality that all the creatures of the world are breathing the same breath. Take action, here and now. From my physical being to the every corner of this out of balance's planet.

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。