管制野生動物貿易 聯合國研發電子許可系統 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

管制野生動物貿易 聯合國研發電子許可系統

2014年07月21日
摘譯自2014年7月16日ENS瑞士,日內瓦報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

CITES秘書長John E. Scanlon與UNCTAD秘書長Mukhisa Kituyi 簽署協議。(CITES秘書處提供)根據聯合國旗下兩個機構16日簽訂的新協議,未來,全球海關將能運用全新電子許可系統管制虎象等野生動物製品的進出口。

瀕臨絕種野生動植物國際貿易公約(CITES,簡稱華盛頓公約)秘書處和聯合國貿易發展會議(UNCTAD)將合作整合電腦化關務管理系統。此系統目前全球有90多個國家使用,涵蓋了絕大部分的外貿程序。

UNCTAD的關務資料自動化系統(ASYCUDA)將導入一CITES管制物種貿易模組,簡稱ACITES。

受CITES管制的35,000種野生動植物,依據其保護等級被列入三個附錄當中。根據CITES的附錄,ASYCUDA模組能連接電腦化關務系統以取得CITES的電子許可標準。

2014年1月,泰國海關人員查扣了9隻犀牛角,總重22公斤。圖:皇家泰國海關。2013年,CITES的電子工具箱加入新的電子許可標準和規範。「CITES祕書處和UNCTAD合作的主要目的是確保國際貿易不會影響CITES管制物種的保育。」UNCTAD秘書長Mukhisa Kituyi說明,新系統預計將能促進貧窮人民的生計,並保障遵循CITES規範和國家法律的企業之權利。

CITES電子許可標準和ASYCUDA的整合將幫助180個CITES成員國政府追蹤野生動物產業鏈,確保合法貿易野生動物製品的永續使用。CITES秘書長John Scanlon表示,「使用這些工具將能確保合法貿易野生動物製品的永續使用,減少仿冒的機會以預防非法貿易。」

CITES附錄一包含931種有滅絕危險的物種,包括虎、象、犀牛、猩猩和大熊貓。這些物種只有在特殊狀況下許可貿易。

附錄二列有超過34,000種物種。這些物種未必有立即滅絕危險,但是貿易必須受管制,避免影響其生存,包括獅、匙吻鱘、短吻鱷、紅木、西洋參和許多珊瑚物種。

附錄三的物種是棲地國家要求其他成員國協助管制國際貿易的物種,包括地圖龜和海象。

 

Customs Agents Get Electronic Control Over Wildlife Trade
GENEVA, Switzerland, July 16, 2014 (ENS)

Customs authorities in countries across the globe will have a new e-permitting system to regulate the import and export of species such as tigers and elephants and their parts under a new agreement signed today by two United Nations agencies.

The Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, or CITES, and the UN Conference on Trade and Development, UNCTAD, have agreed to integrate a computerized Customs management system currently used by over 90 countries, which covers most foreign trade procedures.

Among these procedures is a module for international trade in CITES-listed species, called ACITES, which will be fully integrated into UNCTAD’s Automated SYstem for CUstoms DAta, ASYCUDA.

The 35,000 species of wild animals and plants covered by CITES trade regulations are listed in three Appendices, according to the degree of protection they need.

Based on the CITES Appendices, the ASYCUDA module can link with computerized Customs systems to harmonize CITES electronic permit standards.

The CITES electronic toolkit was updated in 2013 with new electronic permitting standards and norms.

“The main purpose of the cooperation between CITES Secretariat and UNCTAD is to ensure that international trade does not harm the conservation of CITES-listed species,” said UNCTAD Secretary-General Mukhisa Kituyi.

He explained that the new system is expected to enhance the livelihoods of the poor and promote opportunities for entrepreneurs who comply with CITES requirements and national legislation.

The harmonization of CITES electronic permit standards with ASYCUDA will help the 180 governments that are Parties to the CITES treaty to trace traded species throughout their business chain to ensure the sustainable use of species that are legally traded.

CITES Secretary-General John Scanlon said, “The use of these tools will contribute towards ensuring the sustainable use of species legally in trade and to preventing illegal trade by reducing the opportunities for fraud.

CITES Appendix I includes 931 species threatened with extinction such as tigers, elephants, rhinos, gorillas, orangutans and giant pandas. Trade in specimens of these species is permitted only in exceptional circumstances.

Appendix II includes more than 34,000 species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival. They include lions, paddlefish, alligators, mahogany, American ginseng and many corals.

Appendix III includes species for which a range country has asked other Parties to help in controlling international trade. Examples include map turtles and walruses.

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