做飯,不該危害你的健康──聯合國推乾淨爐具運動 | 環境資訊中心

做飯,不該危害你的健康──聯合國推乾淨爐具運動

2010年09月27日
摘譯自2010年9月21日ENS美國,紐約報導;段譽豪編譯;莫聞審校

印度每年有超過40萬人因為吸入以明火烹飪所產生的有毒煙霧而死亡。(圖片來源:殼牌基金會)「有史以來,人類就一直使用骯髒的爐具與火進行烹飪,但一個簡單的事實是,這麼作等於慢慢的殺死上百萬人,並且污染著環境。」美國國務卿希拉蕊(Hilary Clinton)於21日宣布「全球乾淨爐具聯盟」(Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves)成立,這是由聯合國基金會所領導的公/私夥伴關係。

「如今我們終於可以想見,在未來全世界的明火烹飪與骯髒爐具將會被乾淨、有效且負擔得起的爐具所取代,爐具的成本將低於25美金。」柯林頓說,「這些爐具升級之後,上百萬人的生命與生活將得到改善,清潔爐具的改革可以成為蚊帳與疫苗的借鏡。」

這項夥伴計畫目標是在2020年以前,100萬個家庭改採用清潔爐具,長遠的目標則是全世界都採用清潔爐具。

在希拉蕊規劃下,美國的參與也是歐巴馬政府「國際發展新策略,藉以同時提升外交與國防發展,成為美國外交政策的一部分。」

全世界大約有一半左右的人口在室內用火、以及低效率的爐灶備餐,這會產生嚴重的健康、經濟與環境問題。

「當我們聚集於紐約開會的當下,全世界的婦女們正在家中或村莊內為家人準備晚餐,」希拉蕊說,「多達30億人圍在明火或老舊低效率的爐灶旁,擠在小小通風不良的廚房中。許多婦女每天在這些爐火旁忙碌幾個小時,背上還背著小嬰兒,還得花很多時間收集燃料。」

「不同國家地區所準備的食物各不相同,但他們呼吸的空氣卻驚人的類似:經由燃燒木頭或其他固體燃料所釋放出來的毒性混合化學物質,濃度可達美國環保署建議的安全標準200倍以上。」希拉蕊說,「婦女們烹飪的時候,煙霧充滿她們的肺部,毒素則毒害著她與她的孩子。」

世界衛生組織(WHO)認為,由骯髒爐具所發出來的煙霧,在貧窮與發展中國家,是五大嚴重健康風險之一。每年有200萬人死於這些煙霧的影響,比瘧疾奪去的生命要多兩倍。

每天接觸這些煙霧會導致肺炎,是全世界兒童的頭號殺手,還會引起慢性呼系道疾病與肺癌。希拉蕊說,每年因木材與其他燃料所產生的室內煙霧所喪命的人數,跟死於愛滋病的人數相當,也超過死於肺結核的人數。「而且這些煙霧含有二氧化碳、甲烷與炭黑等溫室氣體,也助長了氣候變遷。」

美國環保署長傑克森(Lisa Jackson)自承,「這對我來說是非常個人的議題。這是關於貧窮以及終極環境正義的問題。」

傑克森有部分非裔血統,在紐奧良第九區的貧民區長大。身為環保署長,她一直努力將環境正義提升到主流議題中,她在21日表示,非常關心那些在家做飯,而接觸到有毒煙霧的人。

傑克森說,美國環保署將在未來5年內,投資600萬美金來進行爐具效率增進的測試與評估,並促進爐具的創新設計與健康效益評估。

聯合國環境規劃署(UNEP)是聯盟的創始合夥人之一,執行秘書長史坦納(Achim Steiner)也表示,提倡清境的爐具有助於減少森林的砍伐,不再使用大量的木頭製作木炭,家庭也改用太陽能等替代能源。

「大約有25%的『炭黑』--也就是被稱為煙塵的顆粒,是來自低效率的爐具,另外40%則來自木材的燃燒。」

史坦納說,當今有高達40%的氣候變化肇因於炭黑,黑色的顆粒吸收了太陽能,並且提高冰的溫度,加速了像是喜馬拉雅山上冰川的溶解速度。他指責炭黑遮蔽了城市的光線,也減少了陽光使農作收成下降,影響了千禧發展目標(Millennium Development Goals)對抗貧窮與飢餓的目的。

「做飯不該危害你的健康,」聯合國基金會主任沃思(Timothy Wirth)說。「低耗能且潔淨的爐具能夠拯救生命、預防疾病,為婦女即女孩們提供更多時間在賺取金錢與教育之中,也能減少環境惡化。這與千禧發展目標理念十分相符。」

「傳統爐具造成的傷害以及負面影響早已眾所週知,我們相信現在已經具備適當的條件,比以往更能有效的解決那些問題,」摩根史丹利全球永續金融部的主任周(Audrey Choi)說。

「10年來,我們一直在幫助以市場為基礎的解決方案,將潔淨的爐具銷往印度、中國、中美洲與非洲國家。這部分已經有很大的進步,」殼牌基金會(Shell Foundation)主任威斯特(Chris West)說。不過,他說,「爐具製造商在銷售潔淨爐具的規模方面臨許多難題,如同許多新興產業,它們需要支持以突破這些障礙。」

聯盟的合作夥伴將制定一套商業規範,以解決大規模改用潔淨爐具時,所需要的先決條件。包括確定目標市場,克服市場對生產、推廣以及使用潔淨爐具的障礙,採用促進婦女參與的策略,並且以市場為基礎的解決方案。

Global Clean Cookstoves Alliance Aims to Save Millions of Lives
NEW YORK, New York, September 21, 2010 (ENS)

"People have cooked over open fires and dirty stoves for all of human history, but the simple fact is they are slowly killing millions of people and polluting the environment," Secretary of State Hilary Clinton said today, as she announced the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, a new public-private partnership led by the United Nations Foundation.

"Today we can finally envision a future in which open fires and dirty stoves are replaced by clean, efficient and affordable stoves and fuels all over the world - stoves that still cost as little as $25," said Clinton. "By upgrading these dirty stoves, millions of lives could be saved and improved. Clean stoves could be as transformative as bed nets or vaccines."

The partners aim to have 100 million households adopt clean cookstoves by 2020 with the long-term goal of universal adoption all over the world.

She framed U.S. participation as part of the Obama administration's "new strategy for international development, which has elevated development alongside diplomacy and defense as the core pillars of American foreign policy."

About half of the world's population relies on indoor fires and inefficient cookstoves to prepare daily meals, causing severe health, economic, and environmental consequences.

"As we meet here in New York, women are cooking dinner for their families in homes and villages around the world," said Clinton. "As many as three billion people are gathering around open fires or old and inefficient stoves in small kitchens and poorly ventilated houses. Many of the women have labored over these hearths for hours, often with their infant babies strapped to their backs, and they have spent many more hours gathering the fuel."

"The food they prepare is different on every continent, but the air they breathe is shockingly similar: a toxic mix of chemicals released by burning wood or other solid fuel that can reach 200 times the amount that our EPA considers safe for breathing," Clinton said. "As the women cook, smoke fills their lungs and the toxins begin poisoning them and their children."

The World Health Organization considers smoke from dirty stoves to be one of the five most serious health risks in poor, developing countries. Nearly two million people die from its effects each year, more than twice the number from malaria.

Daily exposure to the smoke leads to pneumonia, the number one killer of children worldwide, chronic respiratory diseases and lung cancer, Clinton said. Each year the effects of indoor smoke from wood and other basic fuels kill as many people as HIV/AIDS and more people than tuberculosis.

"And because the smoke contains greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, as well as black carbon, it contributes to climate change," Secretary Clinton said.

EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson confided to the CGI audience, "This is a very personal issue for me. It's about poverty, the ultimate environmental justice issue."
Jackson, who is part African-American, grew up in New Orleans' low-income Ninth Ward. As EPA administrator she has worked to elevate environmental justice to a mainstream issue and said today that she cares deeply about the people who are exposed to toxic smoke in their homes while trying to cook for their families.

Jackson said EPA will invest $6 million over the next five years to enhance efforts at stove testing and evaluation, cookstove design innovation and assessments of health benefits.

The United Nations Environment Programme is an Alliance founding partner and today UNEP Executive Director Achim Steiner said the clean cookstoves initiative will help reduce deforestation by curbing the large quantities of wood used to make charcoal, and by households switching to alternative fuels such as solar energy.

"Inefficient cooking stoves are estimated to be responsible for approximately 25 percent of emissions of black carbon, particles often known as soot, of which 40 percent is linked to wood burning."

Steiner said black carbon is responsible for up to 40 percent of current climate change, accelerating melting rates of glaciers in mountain ranges such as the Himalayas, as the dark particles absorb sunlight and raise ice temperatures. He blamed black carbon for the dimming of cities in polluted parts of the world and for reducing sunlight available to grow crops, with implications for poverty and for combating hunger under the Millennium Development Goals.

"Cooking a meal shouldn't be hazardous to your health," Wirth said. "Cookstoves that reduce fuel consumption and operate cleanly will save lives, prevent disease, provide more time for women and girls to devote to schooling and earn money and reduce environmental degradation. That addresses almost all of the MDGs."

"While the harmful and tragic effects of traditional cookstoves have long been known, we believe the right conditions are in place to address this problem more effectively than ever before," said Audrey Choi, head of Global Sustainable Finance at Morgan Stanley.

"For 10 years we have been helping to deliver market-based solutions to selling clean cookstoves in India, China, Central America and Africa. The sector has made great progress," said Shell Foundation Director Chris West. Still, he said, "Stove manufacturers face numerous barriers to successfully selling clean cookstoves at scale, and just like any infant industry they need support to address those barriers."

Alliance partners will develop a business plan to address the prerequisites for large-scale adoption of clean cookstoves, identify target markets, overcome market barriers to production, deployment, and use of clean cookstoves, and implement a strategy emphasizing women's participation and market-based solutions.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導