環境荷爾蒙污染源更多樣 美國擬徹查134種物質 | 環境資訊中心

環境荷爾蒙污染源更多樣 美國擬徹查134種物質

2010年11月24日
摘譯自2010年11月17日ENS美國,華盛頓特區報導;洪美惠編譯;蔡麗伶審校

美國環保署(EPA)已確定了一份134種可能干擾內分泌系統的化學物質名單,並即將進行篩檢。

內分泌干擾物會與人類或動物體內調節生長、代謝和繁殖的激素交互作用,也可能擾亂這些激素的製造與分泌,又稱環境荷爾蒙。

「對於美國人民,尤其是對兒童,內分泌干擾物會嚴重影響健康。現今美國人比以往接觸更多化學物質。這些物質來自產品、來自環境及我們體內。環保署必須採取行動,收集資料並且防止危害發生。」美國環保署長傑克遜(EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson)說。

環保署已篩選了67種農藥化學物質。2009年10月,該署對農藥公司發出行政令,要求對這些化學物質進行內分泌干擾物篩檢。

環保署將規定,自2011年開始對第2組為數134種的化學品進行檢驗。這些化學品包括溶劑、汽油、塑膠、個人護理產品、殺蟲劑和藥品等。

在紐約市東河附近的苯儲存槽。圖片節錄自: Shara Shisheboran相本。 苯(benzene)是已知的致癌物質,用於工業溶劑、生產藥品、塑料、合成橡膠和染料的製程。 過氯酸鹽(perchlorate)是用於製作煙火和火箭燃料,而乙二醇(ethylene glycol)則是做為汽車防凍液的有機化合物。

依據安全飲用水法案(Safe Drinking Water Act)的規範,這份名單上的化學物質已確定被列為優先名單,而且很可能出現在飲水水源中,也已有許多人喝進肚子了,環保署說。

藥品化學物質包括2個在美國最有名的和最廣泛使用的藥物,紅黴素(erythromycin)和硝酸甘油(nitroglycerin)。

紅黴素是一種抗生素,用於治療支氣管炎、白喉、退伍軍人症、百日咳、肺炎、風濕熱、性病,以及耳朵、腸道、肺、泌尿道和皮膚感染。

硝酸甘油噴劑和藥碇用於治療罹患冠狀動脈疾病患者心絞痛或胸部疼痛,此症是因為血管變窄影響到供應心臟的血流量。

這份名單還包括農藥有效成分,目前正在環保署登記審查程序(EPA's registration review program)評估中,以確保它們符合當前的科學標準和法規管理標準。

從篩檢得來的數據將可提供環保署系統化的科學資料,有助於該署確認是否需要進行額外的檢測,或是其他必要的步驟,以提報為潛在的內分泌干擾物質。

EPA Will Test 134 More Chemicals for Endocrine Disruption
WASHINGTON, DC, November 17, 2010 (ENS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified a list of 134 chemicals that will be screened for their potential to disrupt the endocrine system.

Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that interact with and possibly disrupt the hormones produced or secreted by the human or animal endocrine system, which regulates growth, metabolism and reproduction.

"Endocrine disruptors represent a serious health concern for the American people, especially children. Americans today are exposed to more chemicals in our products, our environment and our bodies than ever before, and it is essential that EPA takes every step to gather information and prevent risks," said EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson.

EPA is already screening an initial group of 67 pesticide chemicals. In October 2009, the agency issued orders to companies requiring endocrine disruptor screening program data for these chemicals.

The agency will begin issuing orders requiring data for the second group of 134 chemicals beginning in 2011.

The chemicals listed include those used in products such as solvents, gasoline, plastics, personal care products, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals.

On the list for testing is benzene, a known carcinogen used as an industrial solvent and in the production of drugs, plastics, synthetic rubber, and dyes.

Perchlorate, used in fireworks and rocket fuel, is on the list and so is ethylene glycol, an organic compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze.

The list includes chemicals that have been identified as priorities under the Safe Drinking Water Act and may be found in sources of drinking water where a substantial number of people may be exposed, the EPA said today.

The pharmaceutical chemicals to be screened include two of the best known and most widely used drugs in the United States - erythromycin and nitroglycerin.

Erythromycin is an antibiotic used to treat bronchitis; diphtheria; Legionnaires' disease; whooping cough; pneumonia; rheumatic fever; and venereal disease; as well as ear, intestine, lung, urinary tract, and skin infections.

Nitroglycerin spray and tablets are used to treat episodes of angina, or chest pain, in people who have coronary artery disease, narrowing of the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart.

The list also includes pesticide active ingredients that are being evaluated under EPA's registration review program to ensure they meet current scientific and regulatory standards.

The data generated from the screens will provide systematic scientific information to help EPA identify whether additional testing is necessary, or whether other steps are necessary to address potential endocrine disrupting chemicals.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導