第一架生質燃料客機 成功飛越大西洋 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

第一架生質燃料客機 成功飛越大西洋

2011年06月23日
摘譯自2011年6月19日ENS法國,巴黎報導;段譽豪編譯;蔡麗伶審校

漢威公司的Carl Esposito與Jim Rekoske在2011年6月18日抵達巴黎。圖片來自:漢威公司。全球第一架以生質燃料為動力的客機,由紐澤西起飛的7個小時後,飛越大西洋,於18日降落在巴黎的布爾歇機場(Paris-Le Bourget Airport)。

這架飛越大西洋的灣流G450型噴射客機,使用的燃料中,有1/4來自亞麻薺提煉的生質燃料。這架客機擁有兩具勞斯萊斯引擎,其中一具是使用漢威亞麻環保航空燃油(Honeywell Green Jet Fuel )與石化航空燃油一比一的混合燃油。

亞麻薺是一種專用作能源的作物,並不會排擠其他糧食作物來源它通常與小麥輪種,也可以生長在不適合糧食作物的貧瘠土地上。這次飛行用油的原料來自一家以亞麻薺科技為主的美商公司Sustainable Oils。

這架飛機的航線是依照林白(Charles Lindbergh)在1927年5月時,首次個人不中斷獨自飛越大西洋的航線。

研究指出,以亞麻薺油為基底的航空用油,可以減少飛機80%的碳排放。漢威公司(Honeywell)依照生命週期分析計算後表示,與整段航程使用石化航空燃油相較,這次試飛使用該公司的環保航空燃油,減少了大約5.5噸的二氧化碳淨排放量。

第49屆巴黎國際航空展在20日對業界開放,並在24日對民眾開放。而這架抵達巴黎布爾歇機場的生質燃料示範機是航空展的焦點。

亞麻薺是油籽作物,用於餵食動物,也可製成生質燃料。圖片來自:Sustainable Oils。漢威公司已由永續且不可食用的來源-例如亞麻薺、痲風樹與藻類等,生產超過70萬加侖的漢威環保航空燃油,應用在商業以及軍事測試。

在至今為止的16個以生質燃料飛行的架次中,漢威證明其環保航空燃油符合所有軍用與商用飛行器的規範,不需修改飛機或引擎即可使用。

除了生質燃料,漢威亦提供其他減少航空公司油料成本的技術,油料是航空公司最主要的營運成本。

Esposito表示,「在灣流客機駕駛艙內裝置的《漢威Primus Epic導航與安全航電系統》(Honeywell's Primus Epic navigation and safety technologies),有助飛機提高燃油效率,並從莫里森鎮飛行更為直接的路徑到達歐洲。」

燃油價格的波動以及航空排放法規對排放更多的限制,推動了對替代燃料來源的需求。

在2007年,國際民航組織(ICAO)的190個會員國,訂定了在2050年以前,每年提升2%燃油效率的全球目標。該組織還建立了一個全球性的框架,開發並部署永續性的替代航空用油,以及2013年飛機發動機的二氧化碳排放標準。

在這些行動基礎之上,國際民航組織去年10月通過了一項決議,為減少航空排放對氣候變遷的影響訂定了到2050年的行動計畫。

除了這些全球標準之外,企業也自發性的訂定了各自飛航活動減碳的標準。

灣流公司計畫、工程與測試資深副總裁Pres Henne表示,「灣流公司致力於達成商用航空公司在減少排放上的遠大理想,包含了在2020年以前達成排碳中性成長,並且在2050年前減少碳排放達2005年的50%。」

Camelina Powers First Transatlantic Biofuel Flight
PARIS, France, June 19, 2011 (ENS)

The first transatlantic flight powered by biofuel landed Saturday at Paris-Le Bourget Airport after a seven hour flight from New Jersey.

One-quarter of the fuel used to carry the Gulfstream G450 jet across the Atlantic Ocean was biofuel derived from camelina. A 50/50 blend of camelina-based Honeywell Green Jet Fuel and petroleum-based jet fuel powered one of the plane's two Rolls-Royce engines.

Camelina is a dedicated energy crop that does not compete in the food chain. It grows in rotation with wheat acreage and can also grow on marginal land not suitable for food crops. The feedstock for this flight was grown and harvested by Sustainable Oils, a U.S. producer of camelina-based technology.

The jet closely followed the route taken by Charles Lindbergh on his first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic in May 1927.

Studies have shown camelina-based jet fuel to reduce carbon emissions from jets by about 80 percent. Based on lifecycle analyses, Honeywell calculates that the use of Honeywell Green Jet Fuel on this demonstration flight saved approximately 5.5 metric tonnes of net carbon dioxide emissions compared to the same flight powered entirely by petroleum-based fuel.

The biofuel demonstration flight arrived at Paris-Le Bourget Airport in time to be featured at the 49th International Paris Air Show, which opens to the industry on Monday and to the public on June 24.

Honeywell has produced more than 700,000 gallons of Honeywell Green Jet Fuel from sustainable, inedible sources such as camelina, jatropha and algae for use in commercial and military testing.

In each of the 16 biofuel flights conducted to date, Honeywell Green Jet Fuel proved that it meets all specifications for flight on military and commercial platforms without any modification to the aircraft or engines.

In addition to biofuels, Honeywell offers other technologies to help airlines reduce fuel costs, the largest single operating cost for airlines.

"Honeywell's Primus Epic navigation and safety technologies embedded in Gulfstream's PlaneView cockpit helped the aircraft fly the most fuel efficient and direct route from Morristown," said Esposito.

Fluctuating fuel prices combined with increased restrictions in aviation emissions regulations is driving the demand for alternative sources of fuel.

In 2007, the 190 member governments of the International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO, set a global goal of two percent annual fuel efficiency improvement up to the year 2050. The organization also set a global framework for the development and deployment of sustainable alternative fuels for aviation and a target of 2013 for a carbon dioxide standard for aircraft engines.

Building on those actions, last October ICAO adopted a resolution to reduce the impact of aviation emissions on climate change, providing a plan of action through 2050.

Alongside those global standards, businesses have set voluntary standards for their aviation activities.

"Gulfstream is committed to achieving business aviation's ambitious goals on emissions reductions," said Pres Henne, senior vice president, programs, engineering and test for Gulfstream. "These include carbon neutral growth by 2020 and a reduction in total carbon emissions of 50 percent by 2050 relative to 2005."

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導