美環保署空污新標準:新火力電廠嚴格限制碳排放 | 環境資訊中心

美環保署空污新標準:新火力電廠嚴格限制碳排放

2013年09月25日
摘譯自2013年9月20日ENS報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

為了因應氣候變遷和保障公共健康,美國環保署20日針對新建發電廠提出碳排放管制標準,這是全美第一個以《空氣清淨法》為法源所設立的電廠碳排放標準。

美國亞利桑那州的火力發電廠。(照片:squeaks2569。)

發電廠是美國最大的集中碳排放來源,幾乎佔全美溫室氣體排放量的三分之一。美國對於發電廠的砷、汞和鉛排放皆有所限制,但並未限制現存發電廠的碳排放量。

新污染標準實踐了美國總統歐巴馬6月25日對環保署發佈的「發電廠碳污染標準」備忘錄,將確保未來的發電廠使用更乾淨的能源科技,包括有效率的天然氣、最新煤科技、核電以及風力和太陽能的再生能源。

環保署為新建之天然氣發電廠和燃煤發電廠建立兩套不同碳污染標準。

針對新建大型天然氣渦輪機組,每發電1000度的二氧化碳排放上限為1000磅(454公斤),新建小型天然氣渦輪機組則是1100磅(499公斤)。而新建燃煤機組,每發電1000度的二氧化碳排放上限為1100磅。發電廠也可視需要選擇以數年平均排放量來計算,但排放上限更低。

美國環保署署長麥卡錫( Gina McCarthy )表示,這些標準將能確保新的電廠引進乾淨能源科技,以控制碳污染,也和目前在乾淨能源的投資相輔相成。美國環保署並已開始與各州、部落、地方政府、企業和勞工領導人以及非政府組織合作。

環境和公共工程委員會主席、加州民主黨參議員Barbara Boxer支持新污染標準:「環保署的新電廠汙染標準是處理最大碳污染來源的關鍵。」

部分共和黨議員則持反對意見。一位議員認為,二氧化碳來自植物和海洋等自然界,人類活動非問題來源。另一位議員則仍認為地球並未暖化──儘管全球學術機構皆有暖化之科學證據。19日產煤州肯塔基州的共和黨議員領袖Mitch McConnell將新標準形容為「一場災難」,並表示將依國會審查法提交反對意見,要求環保署撤銷新標準。

環團對新污染標準表示肯定。環境防禦基金會執行長Fred Krupp說,「全國多個社群深受洪水、乾旱和野火之苦,新標準總算能夠限制新電廠的碳污染。」

20日全國有色人種協進會(NAACP)也肯定環保署的新標準,並強調有色社群受發電廠碳污染影響最深。NAACP環境和氣候正義計畫主任Jacqueline Patterson說,「2012年有40%的能源相關溫室氣體排放來自發電廠,其中大部分來自燃煤發電廠。此類污染對於低收入社群和有色社群的傷害尤其嚴重。」

美國目前有近12州已經實施或正在執行自己的減碳市場機制。此外,超過25州已設定能源效率目標,超過35州已設定再生能源目標。

EPA Proposes 1st Carbon Emissions Limits on New Power Plants
WASHINGTON, DC, September 20, 2013 (ENS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today proposed the country’s first Clean Air Act standards to cut carbon pollution from new power plants to combat climate change and improve public health.

The newly proposed standards are meant to ensure that the power plants of the future use cleaner energy technologies, such as efficient natural gas, advanced coal technology, nuclear power, and renewable energy like wind and solar.

Power plants are the largest concentrated source of emissions in the United States, accounting for roughly one-third of all domestic greenhouse gas emissions. While the United States has limits in place for arsenic, mercury and lead pollution that power plants can emit, there are no national limits on the amount of carbon pollution new or existing power plants can emit.

Today’s proposal achieves the first milestone of President Barack Obama’s June 25 Memorandum to the EPA on “Power Sector Carbon Pollution Standards”.

To establish carbon pollution standards for existing power plants and build on state efforts to move toward a cleaner power sector, EPA has begun to work with state, tribal, and local governments, industry and labor leaders and nonprofits.

Today’s proposal sets separate standards for new gas-fired and coal-fired power plants.

New large natural gas-fired turbines would need to meet a limit of 1,000 pounds of carbon dioxide per megawatt-hour, while new small natural gas-fired turbines would need to meet a limit of 1,100 pounds of CO2 per megawatt-hour.

New coal-fired units would have to meet a limit of 1,100 pounds of CO2 per megawatt-hour, and would have the option to meet a somewhat tighter limit if they choose to average emissions over multiple years, which would giving those units more operational flexibility.

EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy said these proposed standards will ensure that new power plants are built with available clean technology to limit carbon pollution, a requirement that is in line with investments in clean energy technologies that are already being made in the power industry.

Senator Barbara Boxer, a California Democrat who chairs the Environment and Public Works Committee, supports the proposed standards. “EPA’s proposed standard for new power plants is a critical and appropriate step forward in addressing the biggest source of carbon pollution.”

But some Republicans in Congress are opposed.

One Congressman blamed carbon dioxide emissions from natural sources, such as plants and oceans, to argue that human activity is not the problem. Another congressman claimed that the Earth is not warming, despite the evidence from scientific institutions across the world.

On Thursday, Senate Republican Leader Mitch McConnell of Kentucky, a coal-producing state, called the proposed rule “devastating” and announced his intent to file a resolution of disapproval under the Congressional Review Act to stop the EPA from imposing its new regulation by ensuring a vote to repeal it.

Environmental groups applauded the proposed carbon emissions standards.

Environmental Defense Fund President Fred Krupp said, “As communities across our country struggle with terrible floods, droughts, and wildfires, these standards will finally put a limit on the carbon pollution that new power plants emit into our skies.”

The NAACP today commended the EPA for its proposal, saying communities of color suffer the worst effects of carbon pollution from power plants.

Said Jacqueline Patterson, director of the NAACP Environmental and Climate Justice Program. “Forty percent of all energy-related emissions of greenhouse gases in 2012 came from power plants, and most of that came from coal-burning power plants. This pollution has the most harmful effect on low-income communities and communities of color.”

Currently, nearly a dozen states have already implemented or are implementing their own market-based programs to reduce carbon pollution. In addition, more than 25 states have set energy efficiency targets, and more than 35 have set renewable energy targets.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

作者

蔡麗伶(LiLing Barricman)

In my healing journey and learning to attain the breath awareness, I become aware of the reality that all the creatures of the world are breathing the same breath. Take action, here and now. From my physical being to the every corner of this out of balance's planet.