【COP21倒數40天】綠色經濟第一步 世銀、IMF共推碳價機制 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

【COP21倒數40天】綠色經濟第一步 世銀、IMF共推碳價機制

2015年10月26日
摘譯自2015年10月20日ENS德國,波昂報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

由世界政府領袖組成的碳價小組20日發表宣言指出,全球碳價的時代來臨,呼籲各國建立碳市場和碳排稅。這是歐洲、非洲、亞洲、中南美洲領導人首次公開呼籲各國和商業界建立碳價機制,以控制氣候變遷。

World Bank Photo Collection(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

世界銀行與國際貨幣基金年會現場。圖片來源:World Bank Photo Collection(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

碳價宣言 歐、美、亞三大洲都有國家簽署

碳價小組由世界銀行行長金墉、國際貨幣基金總裁拉加德(Christine Lagarde)和經濟合作發展組織秘書長古瑞亞(Angel Gurria)共同召集。金墉表示,這是首次全球攜手推廣碳價,「顯示全球已從爭論低碳經濟如何成長的階段,進化至執行政策和價格機制以創造工作機會、綠色經濟成長和財富。」

支持碳價的領袖來自工業化和開發中國家,包括德國總理梅克爾、智利總統巴切萊特、法國總統歐蘭德、衣索比亞總理德薩萊尼、菲律賓總統艾奎諾三世、墨西哥總統尼托。加州州長布朗和里約熱內盧市長派耶斯,也簽署了宣言。

碳價小組的宣言是上周COP21在波昂會前會的成果之一。該會議的目的是談判巴黎峰會的協議內容。目前協議草案缺少碳價相關內容,因為部分國家反對以市場解決氣候變遷問題。

在巴黎峰會上,各國領袖將簽署具有法律約束力的全球性合約,限制溫室氣體排放,將暖化控制在比前工業時代高2°C以內。巴黎峰會也就是聯合國氣候綱要公約UNFCCC締約國大會(COP21)。

碳價小組希望能在11月30至12月11日巴黎氣候峰會前激起相關行動。

企業實體協助 中國也加入

支持碳價的商業領袖,包括全美最大投資機構加州公務員退休系統、法國跨國公司電力ENGIE、印度馬恆達集團和荷蘭皇家帝斯曼公司。

這些企業實體將透過碳價領袖聯盟,協助連結商業需求和公共政策。碳價領袖聯盟將於11月30日在巴黎啟動行動平台。

中國國家主席習近平今年9月25日訪美時宣布,2017年中國將開始實施國家排放交易系統,主要工業包括鐵、鋼、發電、化學、建材、造紙和有色金屬都會納入系統。14億人口的中國是全世界人口最多的國家,也是第一大溫室氣體排放國。美國是第二名。

碳價機制 歐盟減排利器

排放交易系統依照限額和交易原則運作。限額是工廠、電廠和其他系統內的設備所能排放的溫室氣體總額。限額會隨時間減少,使整體排放量下降。

在限額內,企業被分配或購買排放配額,可依需求互相交易。企業也可向國際減排計畫購買有限的國際點數。

全世界約有40國、23個城市、州和區域已執行或正在導入碳價,佔全球溫室氣體排放的12%。已經實施或已有時間表的碳價工具,自2012年以來成長近一倍,總市場價值約500億美元。

歐盟排放貿易系統(EU ETS)是歐盟對抗氣候變遷的政策基石、有效減少工業溫室氣體排放的主要工具。此外,EU ETS也是目前最具規模的國際溫室氣體排放配額貿易系統,涵蓋31國1萬1000座電廠、工廠和機場。

World Leaders Urge Global Carbon Pricing
BONN, Germany, October 20, 2015 (ENS)

Global carbon pricing is an idea whose time has come, heads of government said in a joint declaration today, urging their peers to set up carbon markets and tax carbon emissions ahead of climate talks in Paris in December.

For the first time, a statement urging countries and businesses around the world to put a price on carbon was issued by national leaders from Europe, Africa, Asia, South and Central America, in an effort to control dangerous climate change.

The call to price carbon comes from the Carbon Pricing Panel, a new group convened by World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim, International Monetary Fund Managing Director Christine Lagarde and OECD Secretary General Angel Gurria.

President Kim said, “There has never been a global movement to put a price on carbon at this level and with this degree of unison.”

“It marks a turning point from the debate on the economic systems needed for low carbon growth to the implementation of policies and pricing mechanisms to deliver jobs, clean growth and prosperity,” said President Kim.

Government leaders who expressed their support for carbon pricing represent both industrialized and developing countries: German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Chilean President Michelle Bachelet, French President François Hollande, Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn, Philippines President Benigno Aquino III, Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto.

California Governor Jerry Brown and Mayor Eduardo Paes of Rio de Janeiro also signed the statement.

The panel hopes to spur faster action ahead of the Paris climate talks November 30 – December 11. There, world leaders are expected to sign a legally-binding, universal agreement limiting greenhouse gas emissions to hold global warming to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. The conference is known as COP21, as it is the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Private sector support for the carbon pricing push comes from the largest U.S. institutional investor the California Public Employees’ Retirement System, the French multinational electric utility ENGIE, the Mahindra Group of India, and Netherlands-based Royal DSM.

These corporate entities will help link business needs with public policies through the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition, an action-based platform that will be launched in Paris on November 30.

The panel’s carbon pricing statement comes as a part of a last week of pre-Paris discussions in Bonn that ends October 23. The meeting aims to agree the language of the global climate change agreement for the Paris conference.

A draft of the agreement to be approved in Paris currently excludes language on carbon pricing because some countries are opposed to the use of markets to address climate change.

During his visit to the United States on September 25, Chinese President Xi Jinping announced that in 2017 China will start its national emission trading system, covering key industry sectors such as iron and steel, power generation, chemicals, building materials, paper-making, and nonferrous metals.

With 1.4 billion people, China is the world’s most populous country and the number one greenhouse gas emitter. The United States is number two.

An emissions trading system works on the cap and trade principle. A cap, or limit, is set on the total amount of certain greenhouse gases that can be emitted by the factories, power plants and other installations in the system. The cap is reduced over time so that total emissions fall.

Within the cap, companies receive or buy emission allowances which they can trade with one another as needed. They can also buy limited amounts of international credits from emission-saving projects around the world.

Around the world, about 40 nations and 23 cities, states and regions have implemented or are putting a price on carbon, with programs and mechanisms covering about 12 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions.

The number of implemented or scheduled carbon pricing instruments has nearly doubled since 2012, reaching an aggregate market value of about $50 billion.

The EU emissions trading system (EU ETS) is a cornerstone of the European Union’s policy to combat climate change and its key tool for reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions cost-effectively.

The first, and still the biggest, international system for trading greenhouse gas emission allowances, the EU ETS covers more than 11,000 power stations and industrial plants in 31 countries, as well as airlines.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

作者

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。

蔡麗伶(LiLing Barricman)

In my healing journey and learning to attain the breath awareness, I become aware of the reality that all the creatures of the world are breathing the same breath. Take action, here and now. From my physical being to the every corner of this out of balance's planet.