生物多樣性日:拯救植物多樣性免於暖化威脅 | 環境資訊中心

生物多樣性日:拯救植物多樣性免於暖化威脅

2007年05月25日
摘譯自2007年5月22日ENS羅馬報導;陳維婷編譯;莫聞審校

種植在英國皇家植物園內的大王蓮(照片來源:Kew)在5月22日國際生物多樣性日(International Biodiversity Day)當天,國際農業研究諮詢小組(CGIAR)的農業科學家提出警告,許多常見作物如馬鈴薯、花生的野生親緣種,正因氣候變遷面臨絕種威脅。同時間,英國的千年種籽銀行(Millennium Seed Bank)存進第十億顆種籽,以對抗地球暖化對植物多樣性造成的威脅。

農作物的野生親緣種一旦滅絕,將造成糧食生產的危機,因為植物育種專家在改進栽培品種時,必須仰賴野生種所保有的抗病、抗旱等各種基因。國際農業研究諮詢小組的首席科學家哈維斯(Andy Jarvis)表示,在未來50年內,30種野生花生與13種野生馬鈴薯將因氣候變遷滅絕,各佔花生與馬鈴薯野生種的60%與12%,在這些野生種消失前,應即刻收存其種籽,以保留農作物的多樣性。

英國皇家植物園則為「千年種籽銀行」的庫藏收入第十億顆種籽,以慶祝國際生物多樣性日。這第十億顆種籽是一種非洲的竹子(Oxytenanthera abyssinica),西非各國的居民利用這種竹子建築房屋、製作家具及釀酒,但是過度採伐卻使其瀕臨絕種。

目前千年種籽銀行收藏了世界最多的野生種籽,總共有來自126個國家、超過1萬8千種植物。他們並與50個國家中的100多個相關單位合作,種籽會在原產地保留一份,另一份則送到千年種籽銀行。

皇家植物園表示,將優先收藏瀕危種、特有種、已具有實用性、或含有隱藏經濟價值的植物種類,計畫在2010年前存進全世界10%,總數約3萬種的野生顯花植物種籽。

Saving Earth's Plant Diversity From Global Warming
ROME, Italy, May 22, 2007 (ENS)

Wild relatives of common food crops such as the potato and the peanut are at risk of extinction due to climate change, a group of agricultural scientists in the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) warned today to mark International Biodiversity Day. Simultaneously, in England, the Millennium Seed Bank banked its billionth seed against the risks of a warming planet.

Extinction of crop wild relatives threatens food production because they contain genes for traits such as pest resistance and drought tolerance, which plant breeders use to improve the performance of cultivated varieties.

In the next 50 years, said Andy Jarvis, the study’s leading author, up to 60 percent of the 51 wild peanut species analyzed and 12 percent of the 108 wild potato species analyzed could become extinct as the result of climate change. Jarvis says there is "an urgent need" to collect and store the seeds of wild relatives in crop diversity collections before they disappear.

In England, The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew marked International Biological Diversity Day by banking its billionth seed in the vaults of the Millennium Seed Bank. The billionth seed is from an African bamboo, Oxytenanthera abyssinica, and was collected in Mali, West Africa. Within Mali, and other sub-Saharan African countries, this bamboo is used for house construction, furniture, basket and wine making, but over-harvesting has led to the species becoming endangered.

Today, the Millennium Seed Bank holds the largest wild seed collection in the world and works with over 100 partner organizations in 50 countries. In all cases, seed collections are kept in the country of origin, in partner seed banks, and duplicates are brought to the Millennium Seed Bank. Kew's Millennium Seed Bank already contains the seeds of more than 18,000 wild plant species from 126 countries.

By 2010, Kew says, 10 percent of the world's wild flowering plant species - totaling 30,000 species - will be banked, with priority given to those that are endangered, endemic, of current local use, or of potential economic value.

全文及圖片詳見 ENS報導