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兩岸環保與永續發展論壇(下)

Cross-strait environmental and sustainable development forum Ⅱ

2006年11月01日
編輯李美儀/英文翻譯馬強

陳瑞賓(台灣環境資訊協會秘書長):接下來我們請北京綠十字生態文化傳播中心的孫曉陽孫小姐來談談中國關於廢棄物處理的概況。

Chen Juei-ping (Secretary-general , Taiwan Environmental Information Association): Now we would like to invite Miss Sunny Sun, with the Beijing Green Cross, to talk about China’s waste management situation.

孫曉陽(北京綠十字生態文化傳播中心項目主任):中國現在年產垃圾約1.5億噸,佔世界垃圾總產量的1/4。在中國現有的668座城市中,大約有2/3都陷入了垃圾的包圍之中。以北京為例,北京現在日產垃圾是15,000噸,全年產生的垃圾堆積起來是相當於五座錦山,也就是中國故宮紫禁城後面的那座山。每天有500輛卡車將垃圾運到遠郊去處理,一天光是運費就要花大概人民幣237萬人民幣,也就是一年8.65億人民幣,這是相當驚人的。

Sunny Sun (Project manager, Green Cross): China is presently producing approximately 150 million tons of trash annually, which is a fourth of total global trash output. Two-thirds of China’s 668 cities are besieged by trash. Taking Beijing as an example, the city produces 15,000 tons of trash a day; the yearly accumulation of so much trash is the equivalent of five Jinshans, the mountain behind the Imperial Palace and Forbidden City. Every day 500 trucks take trash outside the city for handling. The transportation costs for hauling trash is about 2.37 million yuan per day, which is 865 million yuan a year -- a truly astonishing amount.

在這些垃圾中,有68%是可以回收利用的,這些可回收利用的垃圾價值,相當於250億人民幣,從這個數字可以看出垃圾價值資源是非常大的。但是中國垃圾的分類並不是分得很好,現在只能做到混合收集。我們一共有三種蒐集方式,首先是在固定地點放置一個收集的容器,由環衛工人每天去收這些垃圾,再把垃圾收到回收站;還有一種是收集站收集,就是小區內建個固定的收集站,清潔工再將收集的垃圾送到收集站;還有一種是垃圾道,垃圾道是在住宅建成的時候就已經設好的,從一層到頂層每一層都有一個垃圾站的出口,每一層的住戶就把他們那一層的垃圾倒在那一個洞裡,環衛工人就不用爬任何的樓梯,從底層的門就可以把垃圾拿走,但是那個垃圾道的收集方式是很容易造成細菌傳播,尤其是在2003年SARS之後,就發現垃圾道的收集方式非常不利於人類健康的,因此就封閉了。

Sixty-eight percent of all this trash is recyclable; the value of the recyclables here is 250 billion yuan. This number shows that the value of trash resources is quite substantial. But recycling efforts in China leave much to be desired, as presently there is no trash separation before collection. We have three types of collection methods in place right now. The first is that people can place containers in designated places where environmental sanitation workers can pick them up every day and take them to recycling stations. Recycling stations also have workers who go to communities, pick up recyclables and take them back. The final way we deal with the problem now is through trash portals. These portals are built into new residences, with residents from each floor throwing their trash down the same portal, saving sanitation workers the trouble of climbing up all those flights of stairs; they can just collect all the trash from the lowest floor. The problem is that these portals are a source of germs and bacteria. We found after the SARS epidemic in 2003 that these trash portals were hazardous to health, so they were closed.

林群超(環境資源研究發展基金會副研究員):現在比較重要的是延伸製造者的責任,這部分必須由政府提出關鍵性的策略,「溯及源頭」是解決廢棄物一個相當重要的部分。由製造者來負擔回收廢棄物的責任,他才會思考產品設計的時候應該要怎麼設計。

Lin Chun-chao (Associate researcher, Institute of Environment and Resource): The important thing now is finding ways to extend the responsibilities of manufacturers. The government needs to propose key policy changes along these lines, as finding the source is an important part of resolving waste problems. When manufacturers are made to recycle their own waste materials, they will consider more carefully how to design their packaging.

劉美麗(主婦聯盟台中分事務所主任):主婦聯盟是在1987年成立,總會正式成立的第二年,台中也成立分支機構,那時候叫做台中工作室,一直到2004年才正式更名為基金會的台中分事務所。

Liu Mei-li (Director,Taichung District Office of Homemakers’ Union and Foundation): The year after the Homemaker’s Union and Foundation was founded in 1987, we opened a Taichung branch. The branch was called the Taichung Workshop up until 2004, when the name was officially changed to the Taichung Foundation Administrative Office.

主婦聯盟會以遊行、拜會或發新聞稿召開記者會的方式,主動對公部門表達民間立場或訴求。我們也嘗試參與公部門召開或舉辦的活動,以及主辦一些由公部門補助的專案跟活動。

The Homemaker’s Union and Foundation has marched, paid official visits and held press conferences to let public officials know of our positions and demands. We have also taken part in government-held meetings and activities, as well as sponsoring some of our own government-subsidized events.

我們跟台中市環保局的互動非常密切,這兩屆的台中市長選舉的時候,我們都有辦理環保政策公約的簽署,市長也在簽署的時候,承諾每一年會針對公約的條文作一次說明,所以我們就搭上了跟公部門互動的橋樑。當我們對公部門政策或合作方式有異議時,通常我們會繼續討論,尋找更充分的資訊,再去跟官方互動,有時候甚至我們獨自去推,不找官方合作了,像強制垃圾分類或限塑政策都是主婦聯盟早期自己來推動的。

We have a very close working relationship with the Taichung City Environmental Protection Bureau. In the past two mayoral elections in Taichung, we handled collecting signatures for environmental policy initiatives. When the mayor himself signed, he promised to give explanatory speeches each year regarding the details of the environmental initiatives, which has given us a bridge into the governmental sector for this important matter. Whenever we are at odds with the government over certain policy or cooperative methods, we usually continue to discuss the matter, find more adequate information and then further interact with government officials. Sometimes we act independently on environmental matters without seeking governmental cooperation, such as enforcing trash separation or limiting the sea of harmful plastics. We pursued these initiatives on our own at a much earlier date.

主婦聯盟的媽媽一向是以「我是生活者」自居,我們不是專家、學者,而是以自己生活者的角度來看問題,哪裡不滿意,我們就提出來討論,甚至付諸行動。我們也有許多成長的課程,讓大家有聯誼的機會,互相的切磋、學習、成長。

The mothers in our Homemaker’s Union and Foundation do not consider ourselves to be experts or scholars; we look to tackle problems we see around us in our everyday lives. Whenever we see a situation we are not happy with, we discuss it and then put a plan into action to fix it. We also offer many personal growth courses that allow everyone to get together and learn from each other.

※ 本文轉載自Taiwan News Online