這份世衛報告名為「2023年倒數計時：世衛2022年全球反式脂肪消除情況報告」（Countdown to 2023：WHO Report on global trans fat elimination 2022）每年追蹤實踐進度。
Five of every eight people on Earth, five billion people, remain unprotected from harmful trans fats in their food, increasing their risk of heart disease and death, a new status report from the World Health Organization, WHO, has found. In fact, trans fat intake is responsible for up to 500,000 premature deaths from coronary heart disease each year globally, the UN health agency concludes.
Trans fatty acids, or trans fats, are a type of unsaturated fat that can occur naturally at very low levels in some meat and dairy products. But it’s the manufactured kind, the partially hydrogenated oils, that are the health concern.
The renowned Mayo Clinic in the United States considers trans fat “the worst type of fat to eat.” Unlike other dietary fats, trans fats raise “bad” cholesterol and also lower “good” cholesterol in the blood.
Trans fats are so unhealthy that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has banned food manufacturers from adding artificial trans fats to foods and beverages.
Some higher income countries have limited trans fats in foods to two percent, but many countries have not. In North Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia, partially hydrogenated cooking oils that contain trans fat are used in the home and by street vendors for frying and baking.
Since WHO first called for the global elimination of industrially produced trans fat in 2018, with an elimination target set for 2023, population coverage of best-practice policies has increased almost six-fold, the UN health agency reports.
Forty-three countries have now implemented best-practice policies for tackling trans fat in food, with 2.8 billion people protected globally.
Despite substantial progress, roughly five billion of the eight billion people now living on the planet are at risk from heart attacks and strokes in people whose blood vessels are blocked with trans fats.
The report, called “Countdown to 2023 WHO Report on global trans fat elimination 2022,” is an annual status report that tracks progress towards the goal of trans fat elimination in 2023. It is published by WHO in collaboration with Resolve to Save Lives, a $225 million, five-year initiative to prevent epidemics and cardiovascular disease. Its funders include Bloomberg Philanthropies, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Gates Philanthropy Partners, which is funded with support from the Chan Zuckerberg Foundation.
There are two best-practice policy alternatives:
1 – mandatory national limit of 2 grams of industrially produced trans fat per 100 grams of total fat in all foods.
2 – mandatory national ban on the production or use of partially hydrogenated oils, a major source of trans fat, as an ingredient in all foods.
Today, nine of the 16 countries with the highest estimated proportion of coronary heart disease deaths caused by trans fat intake do not have a best-practice policy. They are Australia, Azerbaijan, Bhutan, Ecuador, Egypt, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan and South Korea.
While most trans fat elimination policies to date have been implemented in higher-income countries in the Americas and in Europe, an increasing number of middle-income countries are adopting these policies, including Argentina, Bangladesh, India, Paraguay, Philippines and Ukraine.
No low-income countries have yet adopted a best-practice policy to eliminate trans fat.