因應氣候變化 發展中國家可望獲得援助 | 環境資訊中心

因應氣候變化 發展中國家可望獲得援助

2008年03月05日
摘譯自2008年2月28日ENS美國,華府報導;謝芳怡編譯;莫聞審校

哥倫比亞小朋友長大後的環境溫度將更高、氣候更極端。圖片來源:Carnemark courtesy World Bank世界銀行與美國商務部海洋暨大氣管理局(NOAA)28日正式簽署協議,未來將共同協助發展中國家管理水資源、對抗乾旱,以及評估氣候變遷。

首項計劃以阿根廷、哥倫比亞、墨西哥和秘魯為主要目標,同時世界銀行與NOAA也會進一步考慮針對其他地區的國家提出相關協助計劃。援助計劃將在這些國家中發展定點預警系統,改善及保護當地生態系統,並了解整合地球觀測系統的好處。

許多近海水域的嚴重問題,需要國際上的結盟並提出解決方法。世界銀行與NOAA表示,這項新協議將讓NOAA的科學家、資源管理師以及世界銀行能即時地協助全球社群,彈性應變極端天氣變化。這項新協議將成為未來援助計劃的保護傘,例如NOAA底下的美國國家氣象局已與哥倫比亞曼特寧市開始商討,在該市設立一套緊急洪水引導系統。

未來相關援助計劃包括在秘魯、玻利維亞和厄瓜多設立高海拔山區氣候地表觀測站。另外,在阿根廷、哥倫比亞、墨西哥和秘魯發展水資源及乾旱管理計劃的可能性,也正在進行談論。在加勒比海所進行的海洋環境生態系統觀測,將可應用到了解氣候變遷對於深海小型魚類的影響。

根據世界銀行27日公佈的年度環境回顧報告「環境問題」中指出,貧窮國家的貧窮人民需要各種技術和財政支持,來協助他們面對氣候變遷。報告中亦指出,先天的地理位置、低收入、低制度量能,以及對於農業這類易受氣候影響產業的極度依賴,在全球氣溫攀升的情況下,這些最不用對氣候變遷負責,同時也是最無法因應氣候變遷後果的人,卻要承受最大的壓力。

今年的「環境問題」報告將重點放在發展中國家開始適應氣候變化的急迫性。報告中指出,氣候變化可能讓這些百年來享用穩定供水的國家面臨水安全危機,少數國家更有可能遭遇水資源衝擊。

世界銀行優秀的氣候變遷、環境專家以及其他投稿人,在報告中針對與適應氣候變化相關的主題,明白提出目前所知與未知的評估,包括氣候變異性、生物多樣性、社會面向和水安全,並就未來因應方向提出具體的建議。

Developing Countries Get Help to Cope with Climate Change
WASHINGTON, DC, February 28, 2008 (ENS)

Assistance for developing countries to manage water resources, combat drought, and measure climate change will be forthcoming under a new agreement signed today by the World Bank and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA, an agency of the U.S. Commerce Department.

The first projects are planned for Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru, while the partners consider more projects in other parts of the world.

The assistance can help establish end-to-end early warning systems, enhance and protect local ecosystems, and realize the benefits of an integrated Earth observing system.

The enormity of many coastal problems requires international alliances and solutions. The partners said their new agreement will allow NOAA scientists and resource managers and the World Bank to more readily assist global communities in building resilience to climate extremes.

The new agreement will serve as an umbrella for future projects like the one NOAA's National Weather Service is discussing with the city of Medellin, Colombia, to install a reliable flash flood guidance system.

Future projects may include establishing high altitude mountain climate surface observing stations in Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador.

Also under discussion is the possibility of developing water resources and drought management projects in Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru.

Marine environment ecosystem observations in the Caribbean may be expanded to see how climate change affects small fish that live in deep water.

The poorest people in the world's poorest countries will need all the technical and financial help they can get to cope with climate change, according to this year's edition of the World Bank's annual environmental review, "Environment Matters," released Wednesday.

Due to their geographical location, low incomes, and low institutional capacity, as well as their greater reliance on climate-sensitive sectors like agriculture, the report says that those least responsible for climate change and least able to cope with it will suffer most as global temperatures rise.

This year's "Environment Matters" focuses on the immediate necessity for developing countries to begin adapting to climate change.

It points out that climate change may bring back water security challenges to countries that for 100 years have enjoyed reliable water supplies and few, if any, water shocks.

In the report, the World Bank's top climate change and environment experts, and other contributors, give frank assessments of what is currently known, and not known, on key subjects linked to adaptation - climate variability, biodiversity, social dimensions, and water security. They make concrete recommendations for the way forward.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS