新流感具大流行潛勢 墨美發佈緊急命令 | 環境資訊中心

新流感具大流行潛勢 墨美發佈緊急命令

2009年04月28日
摘譯自2009年4月27日ENS瑞士,日內瓦報導;謝芳怡編譯;蔡麗伶審校

在新流感(舊稱豬流感)感染人數持續增加的情況下,世界衛生組織27日將國際流感警報提高到6級中的第4級,這也是2005年用來因應禽流感的預警機制首次實施。


墨西哥市戴上口罩的祈禱者。攝影:Eneas De Troya

預警層級的提高代表在至少一個國家爆發人傳人病例,增加了全球性傳染疾病的風險,但不並表示全國性的傳染無法避免。

世衛組織助理總幹事福田敬二在日內瓦接受訪問時表示:「在疫情快速惡化的情況下,讓各國認知到現在是預防潛在流感的最好時機,是相當重要的。」

福田敬二解釋,由衛生專家所組成的緊急委員會主要任務在處理目前爆發的新流感疫情,提高警報層級則是因為病毒已擴散到美國、墨西哥和加拿大,而西班牙也已確認第一起病例。

世衛總幹事陳馮富珍指出,新流感有可能會變為流行病毒,動物病毒已開始傳染給人體,讓它具潛在傳染性。

此病毒被稱為A/H1N1的新亞型病毒,之前從未在豬隻或人體上檢測出此種病毒。新流感是一種發生在豬隻的呼吸道疾病,可傳染給人體,人體之間再互相傳染,但食用豬肉並不是傳染途徑。

這類新型流感的症狀和其他流感很類似,例如體溫超過39°C、劇烈頭痛、咳嗽、喉嚨痛、肌肉酸痛、畏寒和疲勞,有些病患也出現腹瀉和嘔吐症狀。

為了因應新流感A/H1N1的病例,陳馮富珍博士25日召開世衛組織緊急委員會,針對疫情進行評估,並提出適當的因應措施。委員會學者也就回報的病例,來鑒定臨床特徵、流行病學和濾過性微生物學在理解上的一些落差。

美國政府26日在實驗室證實20起人體感染A/H1N1新流感後,隨即發佈國家公共衛生緊急命令,其中紐約8人、加州7人、德州2人、堪薩斯州2人、俄亥俄州1人。

墨西哥爆發新流感疫情後,總統卡德隆25日發佈緊急命令,要求進行隔離及中止公共活動。在27日早上的記者會上,墨西哥衛生部長柯多瓦指出,自4月13日疫情爆發後,已有149人死亡,因嚴重肺焱而住院的人數為1995人,其中776人仍在住院中,1070人已出院。

研究人員也透過這些死亡病例,開始查證所使用的生物藥劑是否會引發嚴重肺炎或豬瘟。

實驗室藥物測試後發現,口服流感新藥克流感(oseltamivir)和瑞樂沙(zanamivir)可抑制新流感A/H1N1病毒,疾病管制局也針對這些藥物和預防方法進行臨時宣導。

 

Swine Flu a Potential Pandemic, Mexico, U.S. Declare Emergencies

With increasing numbers of people contracting the deadly swine flu virus, the United Nations health agency today elevated the international pandemic alert to phase 4, on a six-point scale, for the first time since the warning system was introduced in 2005 in response to the avian influenza crisis.

The increase in the alert level signals an outbreak of human to human transmission in at least one country, which increases the risk of a global epidemic, but does not mean a pandemic is inevitable.

"Given the rapidly evolving situation [it was felt] that it was important to give a strong signal to countries that now is a good time to strengthen preparations for possible pandemic influenza," World Health Organization Assistant Director-General Keiji Fukuda told reporters in Geneva.

Fukuda explained that the emergency committee of health experts, set up to deal with the recent outbreak of the swine flu virus, raised the alert level because the virus had already spread to the United States, Mexico, and Canada, with a verified case in Spain.

On Saturday World Health Organization Director-General Margaret Chan said the outbreak of a deadly new strain of swine flu has the potential to become a pandemic. The animal virus has begun infecting people, giving it pandemic potential.

The virus is being described as a new subtype of A/H1N1 not previously detected in swine or humans. It is a respiratory disease of pigs that can be transmitted to humans and passed from human to human. It is not transmitted by eating pork.

Symptoms of the new influenza virus are similar to those of other types of flu - sudden temperature of over 39°C, intense headache, cough, sore throat, body aches, chills and fatigue. Some people have reported diarrhea and vomiting as well.

In response to cases of swine flu A/H1N1, Dr. Chan Saturday convened a meeting of the WHO Emergency Committee to assess the situation and advise her on appropriate responses. Committee members identified a number of gaps in knowledge about the clinical features, epidemiology, and virology of reported cases and the appropriate responses.

The U.S. government Sunday declared a national public health emergency after lab confirmation of 20 human cases of A/H1N1 swine flu - eight in New York, seven in California, two in Texas, two in Kansas, and one in Ohio.

President Felipe Calderon Saturday declared an emergency in Mexico's swine flu outbreak, giving him powers to order quarantines and halt public events.

At a news conference this morning, Mexican Health Secretary Jose Angel Cordova Villalobos said 149 people have died of the disease since the outbreak began in Mexico on April 13. The number of persons admitted to hospitals for severe pneumonia in the country is 1,995, of which 776 remain hospitalized, and 1,070 have been discharged.

Research is being carried out to confirm whether the biological agent involved produced severe pneumonia or swine fever in those who died.

Laboratory testing has found the swine flu A/H1N1 virus susceptible to the prescription antiviral drugs oseltamivir, also called Tamiflu, and zanamivir, also called Relenza, and the CDC has issued interim guidance for the use of these drugs to treat and prevent swine flu infection.

作者

蔡麗伶(LiLing Barricman)

In my healing journey and learning to attain the breath awareness, I become aware of the reality that all the creatures of the world are breathing the same breath. Take action, here and now. From my physical being to the every corner of this out of balance's planet.