全球監測報告:犀牛盜獵日益猖獗 | 環境資訊中心

全球監測報告:犀牛盜獵日益猖獗

2009年12月04日
摘譯自2009年11月30日ENS瑞士,日內瓦報導;王茹涵編譯;蔡麗伶審校

一份由國際自然保育聯盟(IUCN)與野生物貿易監測組織(TRAFFIC) 於11月30日發表的報告顯示,非洲和亞洲盜獵犀牛的情況正日益嚴重。

亞洲地區對犀牛角的需求促使了貿易。報告顯示,當今盜獵者十分精明,懂得使用獸醫用麻藥、毒藥、弩與高口徑武器獵殺犀牛。

該報告也記載非洲的執法效率更益低落,盜獵情況更加猖狂。根據新數據顯示,在過去三年中,非洲95%的盜獵發生在辛巴威和南非。情況最嚴重的是辛巴威,當地犀牛數量正逐漸減少,然而盜獵犀牛的定罪率為只有3%。而在南非,儘管該國引進一些新措施,調查人員發現偷獵和非法交易的犀牛角數量仍在增加當中。

犀牛角常用於亞洲的傳統醫學,可用於治療發燒和抽搐。在葉門和阿曼,犀牛角也被製為珍貴的匕首把柄。

大多數獵自非洲南部的犀牛角運往包括中國在內的東南亞和東亞藥材市場。尤其是越南,該報告點出,越南這個國家值得特別注意,因為近來已發現一些在南非經商的越南人涉及犀牛角犯罪。此外,越南唯一的爪哇犀牛族群狀況也值得關切。

報告中也透露出一些好消息,即某些地區的犀牛數量正在增加。

2008年5月,「非洲犀牛專家小組」會議更新了非洲大陸犀牛數量,估計反映了2007年12月非洲的犀牛數。儘管盜獵猖獗,兩種非洲犀牛的野生數量持續增加,白犀牛(Ceratotherium simum)達到17475隻,而黑犀牛(Diceros bicornis)達到4230隻。

亞洲的犀牛則沒這麼幸運。亞洲共有約 2800隻各種類野生犀牛。

該報告對馬來西亞、印尼和越南某些蘇門答臘和爪哇犀牛的族群表示憂心,因為這些不但族群小、個體數不斷減少,且狀況不明朗。在野外,現在只發現兩個爪哇犀牛的族群。牠被自然保育聯盟紅色清單歸類為「極度瀕危物種」。

報告闡述,「不同於南亞和一些非洲的犀牛分布國,東南亞國家的政府對犀牛保護工作的支持非常有限。適合犀牛棲息的廣大地區被變更為棕櫚油種植用地,或進行其他開發,使犀牛更易受到盜獵。在其他情況下,保護區也受到盜獵者的入侵。」

'Rampant' Rhino Poaching on the Rise
GENEVA, Switzerland, December 1, 2009 (ENS)

Rhino poaching in both Africa and Asia is increasing, finds a report issued today by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, IUCN and the wildlife trade monitoring network TRAFFIC.

The trade is being driven by Asian demand for rhinocerus horns and the report documents killing by sophisticated poachers, who now are using veterinary drugs, poison, crossbows and high caliber weapons to kill rhinos.

The report documents a decline in law enforcement effectiveness and an increase in poaching intensity in Africa. Over the past three years, 95 percent of the poaching in Africa has occurred in Zimbabwe and South Africa, according to the new data.

The situation is most serious in Zimbabwe where rhino numbers are now declining and the conviction rate for rhino crimes is only three percent.

Despite the introduction of a number of new measures, poaching and illicit horn trade in South Africa also has increased, investigators found.

Rhinoceros horns are used in traditional Asian medicine where they are prescribed for fevers and convulsions. They are also prized as dagger handles in Yemen and Oman.
Most rhino horns leaving southern Africa are destined for medicinal markets in southeast and east Asia, especially Vietnam, and also China. The report highlights Vietnam as a country of particular concern noting that Vietnamese nationals operating in South Africa have recently been identified in rhino crime investigations. In addition, concern has been expressed about the status of Vietnam's single Javan rhino population.

There is some good news in the report, which documents that in some areas rhino populations are increasing.
African continental rhino numbers were updated at the African Rhino Specialist Group meeting in May 2008, with estimates reflecting the population status of Africa's rhinos as of December 2007. Despite high levels of poaching, both rhino species in Africa have continued to increase in the wild, with white rhino, Ceratotherium simum, up to 17,475 and the black rhino, Diceros bicornis, up to 4,230 animals.

Asian rhinos have not fared so well. A total of about 2,800 animals of all species remain in the wild in Asian countries.

The report raises concerns over the low and declining numbers as well as the uncertain status of some of the Sumatran and Javan rhino populations in Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam.

The Javan rhino, Rhinoceros sondaicus, is now only found in two populations in the wild and is classed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List.

"Unlike south Asia and a number of African rhino range states, there has also been very limited government support for rhino conservation efforts in southeast Asia," according to the report. "Vast areas of suitable rhino habitat have been altered for palm oil cultivation and other development, leaving rhinos more vulnerable to poaching. In other cases, protected areas have also suffered encroachment."

 

全文及圖片詳見:ENS