因應氣候變化與糧食安全 G20支持成立基金 | 環境資訊中心

因應氣候變化與糧食安全 G20支持成立基金

2010年07月02日
摘譯自2010年6月28日多倫多,安大略省,加拿大,ENS報導;洪美惠編譯;蔡麗伶審校

加拿大總理哈珀宣布取消對海地的債務。 (照片提供:G20)世界最大的經濟體G20在週日(27日)的年度會議結論聲明,透過多邊發展銀行(Multilateral Development Banks,MDB),將有更多因應氣候變化和糧食安全的基金。

G20成員國說,他們對MDB提供3500億美元基金,可讓他們的放款總額增加近一倍。這些政府領袖在閉幕宣言說:「將資金引進正在進行中及重要改革上,可使這些機構運作更透明更有效率。才能加強改善窮人生活品質並持續成長,並對付應氣候變化與糧食安全問題。」

會議結束時,G20領袖們表示,遭受地震蹂躪的海地現在正值颶風季節。海地將獲得更多的財務幫助,且不必償還任何國際金融機構債務。「我們主張與海地人民一起團結,並提供急需的重建援助,包括全面取消所有海地的國際金融機構債務,」領袖們宣稱,「我們歡迎開辦海地重建基金」。

各國領袖承諾投入更多資金和行動,以提高全球糧食安全。2009年在意大利進行的拉奎拉八國領袖高峰會(L'Aquila G8 Summit)14個國家承諾,為 10多億遭受長期飢餓的人們維護糧食安全。現在是該承諾的延伸工作。

G8和G20的捐助者已投資在全球農業和糧食安全計畫(Global Agriculture and Food Security Program),這是由世界銀行(World Bank)管理的信託基金。保證會捐助的有:美國(4.75億美元)、加拿大(2.3億美元)、西班牙(0.95億美元)、南韓(0.5億美元)和蓋茨基金會(0.3億美元)。投資改善灌溉系統,有良好水資源管理,以提高低收入國家的農業生產,該基金將資助這類中長期農業發展要素。

各國領袖表示支持「逐步淘汰低效能石化燃料補貼,補貼會鼓勵浪費性消費。同時要考慮到弱勢群體與其發展需要。」歐巴馬總統在記者會上說,「在(去年)匹茲堡會議上承諾逐步取消石化燃料補貼,G20領袖現在再次承諾。美國已經制定了實現這一目標的計劃,我們敦促G20夥伴也這樣做。這將是一個最重要的關鍵,我們可以創造潔淨能源的就業機會,增加能源安全並應付氣候變化的威脅。」

各國領袖也聲明,「由於墨灣漏油的意外,我們認知大家必須共同分擔保護海洋環境,防止因為探勘、發展、運輸、以及後續其他海上意外。」

G20 Backs Funding for Climate, Food as Protesters Rage Outside
TORONTO, Ontario, Canada, June 28, 2010 (ENS)

More funding to address climate change and food security will be available through the Multilateral Development Banks, said the G20 group of the world's largest economies in a declaration at the conclusion of their annual meeting here Sunday.The G20 governments said they have increased capital funding to the Multilateral Development Banks by $350 billion, allowing them to nearly double their lending.

In their closing declaration the government leaders said, "This new capital is joined to ongoing and important reforms to make these institutions more transparent, accountable and effective, and to strengthen their focus on lifting the lives of the poor, underwriting growth, and addressing climate change and food security."

Winding up their meeting inside the Toronto Convention Centre on Sunday, the G20 leaders said the earthquake-ravaged country of Haiti, now facing hurricane season, will receive more financial help and will not have to repay its debts to any international financial institutions.

"We stand united with the people of Haiti and are providing much-needed reconstruction assistance, including the full cancellation of all of Haiti's IFI debt," the leaders declared. "We welcome the launching of the Haiti Reconstruction Fund."

The leaders pledged more funding and more action to increase global food security. They are furthering work begun in 2009 at the L'Aquila G8 Summit in Italy where 14 countries made commitments to food security for the more than one billion people who suffer from chronic hunger.

G8 and G20 donor governments have invested in the Global Agriculture and Food Security Program, a new trust fund administered by the World Bank. Donors who have made commitments to the fund include the United States ($475 million), Canada ($230 million), Spain ($95 million), South Korea ($50 million) and the Gates Foundation ($30 million).

The fund will finance medium-term to long-term elements of agricultural development in low-income countries to raise agricultural productivity with better water management by investing in irrigation infrastructure and improved land use planning, among other initiatives.

The leaders expressed their support for "phase out over the medium term of inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption, taking into account vulnerable groups and their development needs."

President Barack Obama told reporters in a news conference Sunday, "The G20 leaders renewed our commitment, made in Pittsburgh, to phase out fossil fuel subsidies. The United States has laid out our plans for achieving this goal, and we're urging our G20 partners to do so as well. This would be one of the most important steps we can take to create clean energy jobs, increase our energy security and address the threat of climate change."

"Following the recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico," the leaders said, "we recognize the need to share best practices to protect the marine environment, prevent accidents related to offshore exploration and development, as well as transportation, and deal with their consequences."

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導