青少年研發淨水方法 獲得世界水資源獎 | 環境資訊中心

青少年研發淨水方法 獲得世界水資源獎

2010年09月10日
摘譯自2010年9月7日ENS瑞典,斯德哥爾摩報導;段譽豪編譯;蔡麗伶審校

2009年,右二為PPWSA總幹事陳,正在視察為窮人給水的計畫成效。圖片來自:SIWI兩名加拿大籍的青少年,在7日晚間世界水資源週的慶祝晚會上,以一種利用微生物與酵素分解聚苯乙烯(塑膠餐具原料)的方法,贏得了斯德哥爾摩青少年水資源獎。

國際評審團表示,人類製造大量免洗餐盤、免洗杯以及包裝材料,但迄今卻一直沒有一種天然且符合經濟成本的方法將之分解。

評審團說,「得獎的計畫創造了新的方法,可以利用微生物與酵素,有效且便宜地分解這些塑膠,而且這方法已經隨時可行。這種方式可以減少全球水域當中的各類塑膠廢棄物。」

世界水資源週是一個每年的定期聚會,提供關心地球上最急迫的水資源問題的人們聚集的機會。主辦單位斯德哥爾摩國際水資源研究所(SIWI),召聚了世界各地2500名的專家、醫生、決策者以及商業創投者,大家齊聚一堂交換意見並提出各樣的解決方案。

據聯合國統計,全世界每天有2百萬噸的農業與工業廢水以及各樣廢棄物被排放到水中。

另外兩名波蘭科學家因控制進入波羅的海的污染有功,在7日獲頒瑞典波羅的海水資源獎。

波羅的海目前正處於非常脆弱的情況,有大約4分之1面積的海域被認定為含氧量過低的死水區。過多的養分造成耗氧植物快速生長,而耗盡了海水中的氧氣。

2010年瑞典波羅的海水資源獎得主諾威克(Maciej Nowicki)教授以及格羅梅克(Marek Gromiec)教授促成波蘭推動污水處理現代化,使得進入波羅的海的優養化物質濃度下降。

瑞典波羅的海水資源獎成立於1999年,獎勵幫助保護波羅的海環境的各種創新、承諾與新方法。

柬埔寨金邊供水管理局(PPWSA)由於其世界公認的供水管理與自給自足能力,在總幹事陳(Ek Sonn Chan)的領導之下,贏得了2010年斯德哥爾摩工業水資源獎。

國際評審委員會在引述中說,「PPWSA的成功,證明了可以利用簡單而有效的管理方法,在發展中國家的大型基礎建設中,利用被廣泛接受的經營原則與策略來擊敗貪腐的問題。」

國際自然保育聯盟(IUCN)警告說,儘管取得了這些令人鼓舞的發展,氣候變遷使得全世界的水資源供應面臨極大壓力。該組織呼籲在各地增加潔淨的水的投資。

IUCN水資源計畫主任史密斯(Mark Smith)說,「對能源與食物的需求,會隨著經濟發展與人口擴張而同時增加。現在比以往任何時候都更需要投資在解決水資源危機上,包括能夠保護人類與自然所需水資源的天然基礎建設。」

「居住在海岸與水岸退化地區的人們以及當地的經濟活動,特別容易受到氣候變遷的影響,」IUCN亞洲水資源協調員潘蓋爾(Ganesh Pangare)說,「在策略上,必須對提供適應氣候變遷的關鍵基礎建設,也就是自然環境做出投資。這包括了對水岸、溼地、河流與海岸的維護與重建。」

在世界水資源週,IUCN發表了《協商-達成水資源協議》一書,旨在幫助決策者與從事水資源相關業的人之間,就如何最好的管理水資源,並且解決可能出現爭端的問題之上,達成可行的協議。

世界永續發展工商理事會總裁史蒂格森(Bjorn Stigson)說,「企業沒有水無法成功,從水的使用開始到整個生產供應鏈,水是重要的推手。」

「今天許多企業可能還沒有看到水資源問題對他們公司的直接影響,」史蒂格森說,「不過,隨著人口的增長導致用水問題壓力增加,企業要能否了解他們現在的用水情況是個關鍵,免得將來他們的商業模式受到負面影響。」

Clean Water Solutions Win Awards at World Water Week
STOCKHOLM, Sweden, September 7, 2010 (ENS)

A new way to break down plastic polystyrine debris using micro-organisms and enzymes won two Canadian teenagers the Stockholm Junior Water Prize tonight at a ceremony at World Water Week.

Discarded fast food containers, disposable cups, and packing materials enter the environment but there has been no natural, cost-effective way to break them down until now said the International Jury in its citation.

"The winning project created a novel approach to break-down these plastics using micro-organisms and enzymes that are cost effective, and readily available. This method could greatly reduce the amount of plastics that end up in the world's waters," the jury said.

The World Water Week is the annual meeting place for people concerned about the planet's most urgent water-related issues. Organized by the Stockholm International Water Institute, SIWI, it brings together 2,500 experts, practitioners, decision makers and business innovators from around the world to exchange ideas, foster new thinking and develop solutions.

Two million tons of sewage and industrial and agricultural waste are discharged into the world's water every day, according to the United Nations.

Two Polish scientists who have helped control the flow of polluting nutrients into the Baltic Sea were today presented with the Swedish Baltic Sea Water Award.

Currently, the Baltic Sea is at a very vulnerable stage, with about a quarter of its total sea floor area recognized as a variable dead zone with very low oxygen levels. An excess of nutrients encourages oxygen-consuming plants to grow, depleting the sea's oxygen levels.

The 2010 Swedish Baltic Sea Water Award laureates Professor Maciej Nowicki and Professor Marek Gromiec have contributed to Poland's commitment to modernized sewage treatment, leading to a drop in the concentration of nutrients entering the Baltic Sea.

Established in 1999, the Swedish Baltic Sea Water Award honors innovation, commitment and new methods that help protect the Baltic Sea water environment.
In recognition of its world class performance in water supply and self-sufficiency, the Cambodian Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority, PPWSA, under the leadership of General Director Ek Sonn Chan has been named the winner of the Stockholm Industry Water Award 2010.

"The PPWSA has successfully fought corruption and shown this can be achieved in a developing country on a large-scale basis using simple but effective management techniques that are based on well-accepted business principles and strategies," said the International Award Jury in its citation.

Despite these encouraging developments, climate change is putting greater pressure on water supplies around the world, warns the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, IUCN. The organization is calling for increased investment in clean water.

"At the same time, demand for energy and food is growing as economies and populations expand, driving up the demand for water," says Smith. "Now, more than ever, we must invest in solving the water crisis - and include investments in natural infrastructure that will safeguard water resources for people and nature."

"People and the economy are increasingly vulnerable to impacts of climate change where watersheds and coasts are degraded," says Ganesh Pangare, IUCN's Water Coordinator for Asia. "It is in the natural environment, which provides critical infrastructure for climate change adaptation, that strategies for investments to reduce vulnerability will need to be made. These include maintenance and restoration of watersheds, wetlands, rivers and coasts."

During World Water Week, IUCN is launching the publication "Negotiate - Reaching Agreements over Water," designed to help decision makers and people working in the water industry to write workable agreements on how to best manage water resources and how to resolve disputes that can arise over water allocation.

"Businesses cannot succeed without water. Starting with water use in manufacturing all throughout to supply chain, water is an essential enabler," said Bjorn Stigson, president of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development.

"Today many businesses may not yet see the immediate impact of water on their companies," Stigson said. "However, with population growth resulting in more water stress, it is crucial for companies to start understanding their water situation now so that their business models don't suffer in the future."

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導