打擊野生動物違法貿易 全球執法力量在曼谷宣示大集結 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

打擊野生動物違法貿易 全球執法力量在曼谷宣示大集結

2013年03月13日
摘譯自2013年3月8日ENS泰國,曼谷報導;沈瑞筠編譯;蔡麗伶審校

在華盛頓公約會議附帶會議中,全球野生動物執法官員2013年3月7日首次齊聚一堂(照片提供:CITES)為了對抗有組織的野生動物貿易犯罪集團,全球的野生動物保育執法官員齊聚曼谷召開全球第一次野生動物執法網會議。

本次會議伴隨178國代表與會的《瀕臨絕種野生動植物國際貿易公約》(CITES,簡稱華盛頓公約)會議召開,CITES將持續至3月14日。

本會議共有來自非洲、亞洲、歐洲、北美及南美洲的10個野生動物執法組織官員們參與,並有其他如中亞、西亞及大洋區執法網提案區代表與會。

野生動物共同執法網在各國政府積極回應下,藉由分享盜獵與非法交易活動資訊、及交換打擊野生動物與林業罪案的最佳技術來促進合作。

華盛頓公約常務秘書John Scanlon稱本次會議為「在合作打擊重大野生動物與林業罪案上重要的一大步。」他表示,「非法野生動物及林業產物交易正逐步擴張、跨國犯罪且越來越有組織。跨國、跨組織的合作結盟提供絕佳的機會來打擊這類嚴重的罪行,並保護受到這些罪案牽連的物種及人類。」

這次會議旨在加強國際合作以打擊野生動物及林業罪案,由國際打擊野生物犯罪聯盟(ICCWC)主辦,華盛頓公約秘書處、國際刑警組織、聯合國毒品暨犯罪問題辦公室、世界銀行及世界海關組織協辦,並由美國政府贊助使得這項會議得以進行。

會議中,官員分享打擊盜獵者經驗、國際打擊野生物犯罪聯盟分享諸如ICCWC野生動物及林業罪案分析工具包等可支援的工具,並為國家、亞區域及區域間合作所面臨的挑戰制訂計畫。

 從2009年來,運往亞洲的大規模獵捕象牙(超過800公斤)數已超過2倍,且在2011年達到歷史新高。圖為2012年底在馬來西亞巴生港查獲大量的走私象牙。(Elizabeth John 攝 / TRAFFIC 提供)

野生動物執法網期望藉由跨越組織與國界的野生動物執法機構和國家、亞區域及區域的層級主管部門的協調努力,以逮捕盜獵者和違法交易者。

根據最新的報告《深陷絕境的大象-非洲象危機》(Elephants in the Dust – The African Elephant Crisis)指出,如同中非棲地喪失威脅了非洲象族群生存,在非洲西部、南部及東部節節高升的盜獵對大象族群帶來相同的威脅。

這份報告3月6日由CITES、聯合國環境規劃署、國際自然保育聯盟及國際野生動物貿易調查委員會,在華盛頓公約會議上共同發表。

報告中呈現透過系統性的監測,為了運往亞洲的大規模獵捕非洲象牙明顯涉及犯罪集團網,且這些犯罪集團越來越活躍並已在象牙交易中站穩腳步。

Scanlon表示,這份報告提供了明確的證據顯示,如果我們要遏制盜獵及違法交易令人不安的上升趨勢,充足的人力、金錢的支援、提升消費國的公眾意識、資訊的交流及有力的執法都必須落實。

國際刑警組織正加強他們投注在打擊野生動物罪案(包括象牙交易)的人力與資源。

3月7日國際刑警組織公佈一份非法線上象牙交易的報告中顯示,短短兩週內,數以百計總重達4500公斤、市值高達145萬歐元的象牙在歐洲九國拍賣網站上販售。

由國際愛護動物基金會贊助的方案網站(Project Web)上,61個拍賣網站上的660項拍賣資訊由特別的國家機構部門進行分析。

過去國際愛護動物基金會調查顯示象牙是網路上最常見的野生動物產品,且賣方僅需承擔少數義務提供象牙合法證明,國際刑警組織的報告建議針對電子商務需訂立特殊法規,並與海關進行密切合作調查及防止網路非法銷售象牙。

國際刑警組織環境犯罪署主管David Higgins表示:「無論在現實世界或是虛擬世界,非法象牙交易對野生大象造成巨大威脅,如果我們希望有效抑止犯罪,在現實或虛擬世界都需要有力的執法。」

Higgins表示:「對抗網路野生動物罪案的執法工作仍在起步階段並面臨新的挑戰,但參與方案網站的各國政府表達的支持及對未來行動的建議是對抗這些嚴重的問題強而有力的基礎。」

2月26日國際刑警組織召開全球首次Project Scale行動,以偵察、打擊與制止漁業罪案。該方案於國際刑警組織在法國里昂的總部首次召開國際漁業執法會議(International Fisheries Enforcement Conference)中提出。會後召開為期兩天首次永久性國際刑警組織漁業犯罪工作小組會議。

2013年2月在法國里昂首次召開漁業犯罪官員會議(照片提供:國際刑警組織)非法漁業每年估計造成全球經濟230億美元的損失。國際刑警組織表示漁業罪案通常其他形式的嚴重跨國犯罪包括貪污、洗錢、欺詐、人口和毒品販運牽連。

由挪威外交部、挪威發展合作署及皮尤慈善信託基金資助經費,Project Scale將針對此類犯罪活動協調行動、打斷販運路線,確保各國法律的執行、協調國家和區域的執法工作。

Wildlife Law Enforcement Gathers Global Strength
BANGKOK, Thailand, March 8, 2013 (ENS)

Wildlife poachers now are well organized criminal syndicates, and in response, wildlife law enforcement officers from around the world convened in Bangkok Thursday for the first global meeting of wildlife enforcement networks.

The event was held alongside the conference of the 178 government Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, CITES, which continues through March 14.

Officers from the 10 wildlife enforcement groups operating within Africa, Asia, Europe, and North and South America attended the meeting, together with others from networks proposed for Central Asia, West Asia and the Oceania/Pacific region.

As a collective, proactive response of national governments, wildlife enforcement networks cooperate by sharing information on poaching and illicit trade activities, and exchanging best practice techniques on combating wildlife and forest crime.

CITES Secretary-General John Scanlon called the meeting "an important step in our collective response to combating serious wildlife and forest crime."

"Illegal wildlife and forest product trade is escalating, transnational and increasingly well-organized," said Scanlon. "Coordinated responses that connect and align efforts across borders and organizations provide the best opportunities to combat this serious crime, and protect the species and people at risk because of it."

The meeting was hosted by the International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime, ICCWC, a collaborative effort by the CITES Secretariat, Interpol, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the World Bank and the World Customs Organization to strengthen international cooperation to combat wildlife and forest crime. It was made possible due to financial support of the U.S. State Department.

At the meeting, officers shared their experiences combating poachers, heard about the ICCWC tools and support available to them, such as the ICCWC Wildlife and Forest Crime Analytic Toolkit, and planned to overcome challenges to national, sub-regional and regional cooperation.

Wildlife enforcement networks hope to arrest poachers and illegal traders by operating across borders and organizational boundaries, coordinating the efforts of wildlife law enforcement agencies and other relevant authorities at a national, sub-regional or regional level.

According to a new report entitled "Elephants in the Dust – The African Elephant Crisis", increasing poaching levels, as well as loss of habitat are threatening the survival of African elephant populations in Central Africa as well as previously secure populations in West, Southern and Eastern Africa.

The report – produced by CITES, the UN Environment Programme, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, and the wildlife trade monitoring network TRAFFIC – was released March 6 at the CITES conference.

It shows that systematic monitoring of large-scale seizures of African ivory destined for Asia indicates the involvement of criminal networks, which are increasingly active and entrenched in the trafficking of ivory.

Scanlon said, "This report provides clear evidence that adequate human and financial resources, the sharing of know-how, raising public awareness in consumer countries, and strong law enforcement must all be in place if we are to curb the disturbing rise in poaching and illegal trade."

INTERPOL, the International Criminal Police Organization, is increasing the energy and resources it devotes to fighting wildlife crime, including ivory trafficking.

On Thursday, INTERPOL released a report on the illegal online trade in ivory that shows a total of 4,500 kilograms of ivory in hundreds of items worth 1.45 million euros for sale on Internet auction sites across nine European countries during a two-week period.

During Project Web, supported by the International Fund for Animal Welfare, the details of 660 advertisements on 61 auction sites were analyzed by specialist national agencies and departments.

With few obligations on sellers to prove the legality of ivory, and previous IFAW investigations showing that ivory is the most widely traded wildlife product on the Internet, the INTERPOL report recommends the introduction of e-commerce specific legislation and strong collaboration with customs to investigate and prevent the illegal online sale of ivory.

"Whether in the real or virtual world, the illegal ivory trade poses one of the biggest threats to elephants in the wild, and law enforcement efforts need to be both off and online if we are to effectively tackle this crime," said David Higgins, manager of INTERPOL's Environmental Crime Programme.

"Enforcement efforts against online wildlife crime are still in their infancy and face new challenges, but the support shown by the countries which took part in Project Web and the recommendations for future actions are a strong base from which to develop a collective response to this serious problem," said Higgins.

On February 26, INTERPOL launched Project Scale, a global initiative to detect, suppress and combat fisheries crime.

The project was launched during the first INTERPOL International Fisheries Enforcement Conference at Interpol Headquarters in Lyon, France. The conference was followed by a two-day meeting of the first permanent Interpol Fisheries Crime Working Group.

Illegal fisheries are estimated to cost the global economy up to US$23 billion a year. INTERPOL says fisheries crime is linked to other forms of serious transnational crime including corruption, money laundering, fraud, human and drugs trafficking.

Funded by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation and The Pew Charitable Trusts, Project Scale will coordinate operations to target this criminal activity, disrupt trafficking routes, ensure the enforcement of national legislation and harmonize national and regional enforcement efforts.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS