在2011年初，在非洲白犀牛（Ceratotherium simum）有20165頭、黑犀牛（Diceros bicornis）有4880頭，但是在2006年到2012年9月間，有至少1997頭犀牛遭到盜獵，而且從2009年以來有4000逾隻犀牛角從非洲非法出口，根據估計，其中92%的犀牛是人們為了獲取犀牛角而殺害的。
Governments today extended greater protection to endangered rhinoceroses that are being slaughtered for their horns, which already are subject to an international trade ban. A record 668 South African rhinos were killed by poachers last year, and nearly 150 have died in 2013.
At the ongoing meeting of the Convention on International trade in Endangered Species, CITES, the 179 member governments agreed to immediately bring every seizure of illegal rhinoceros horn made within their territories to the attention of authorities in countries of origin, transit and destination and to the attention of the CITES Secretariat.
In addition, governments agreed to enact legislation or use existing legislation to facilitate the use of covert investigations and controlled deliveries in the investigation of wildlife crime and enact anti-money laundering and asset forfeiture legislation.
The delegates also agreed to prosecute members of organized crime groups implicated in rhinoceros-related crimes and apply penalties strong enough to act as effective deterrents.
Vietnam, where rhino horn demand, stoked by claims that the horn cures cancer and hangovers, is strongest, must implement a strategy to reduce demand in the country and ensure rhino horn traffickers are prosecuted and punished. Rhino horns are composed of keratin, the same material that hair and nails are made of, and no curative properties have ever been proved for the ingestion of this substance.
The CITES member governments directed Vietnam to make progress with the development and implementation of the South Africa – Vietnam 2012 to 2017 Joint Action Plan by strengthening management of imported rhino horn trophies, and to improve investigations and prosecutions of Vietnamese nationals suspected of illegally trading in rhino horn.
Mozambique, a major transit country for rhino horn, must strengthen legislation and enforcement to reduce horns leaving the African continent. Currently, it is just a misdemeanor to smuggle rhino horns through Mozambique.
Mozambique shares a border with South Africa's Kruger National Park, where most of the world's rhinos live. The park is also the epicenter of illegal rhino killing. This year, 146 rhinos have been poached in South Africa.
By the beginning of 2011 there were 20,165 White Rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, and 4,880 Black Rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, in Africa. But at least 1,997 rhinos were poached between 2006 and September 2012 and over 4,000 rhino horns have been illegally exported from Africa since 2009, with an estimated 92 percent of these coming from rhinos specifically killed to obtain their horn.
If funding is available, the CITES member governments asked the Secretariat to convene a Rhinoceros Enforcement Task Force to develop strategies that improve international cooperation.
Elephants did not fare so well at the CITES meeting although African elephants face numerous, serious and on-going threats on an unprecedented scale including illegal ivory trade, human-elephant conflict and habitat loss.
Still, governments today decided against immediate trade sanctions against nine African countries that have repeatedly failed to tackle the illegal trade in ivory: Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Mozambique, Nigeria and Uganda.
Instead those countries must identify actions and deadlines to ensure progress in controlling illegal ivory trade before summer 2014, with the potential threat that they could face trade sanctions then if there is no improvement in the situation.
Governments adopted other measures to help curb the illegal ivory trade. They agreed to create an Ivory Enforcement Task Force, which will allow for better law enforcement collaboration between countries. And they will implement better DNA-based forensic techniques to identify the origin of confiscated ivory.
Governments agreed to a U.S. proposal requesting the CITES Secretary-General to cooperate with the UN Office on Drugs and Crime on national security implications of the illegal killing of elephants.