多類兒童用品含毒 全美買得到 | 環境資訊中心

多類兒童用品含毒 全美買得到

2014年02月11日
摘譯自2014年2月6日ENS美國、西雅圖、華盛頓報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

美國華盛頓州去年發佈新的兒童產品安全法案(Children's Safe Products Act,要求多家兒童用品製造商呈報使用有毒化學物質的兒童商品。

這些資料彙整於「購物車中的有毒物質:購物注意事項」這份研究報告。其指出,兒童商品中的化學物質可能致癌、干擾賀爾蒙或影響生殖發育,而且這些兒童用品在美國最大的連鎖量販店都買得到。

華盛頓西雅圖的街上,一個家庭正在選購玩具。(圖:Pictoscribe)

華盛頓州法令規定,使用66種化學物質須呈報。2013年3月至9月間,兒童用品製造商依法呈報的「兒童高風險化學物質」有甲醛、雙酚A(BPA)、對羥基苯甲酸酯、鄰苯二甲酸鹽、重金屬、阻燃劑和工業溶劑等,常用在兒童玩具、衣服、安全用具和寢具中。

這6個月4605件申報中,有兒童餐具含甲醛,還有安全座椅和玩具含有害阻燃劑。衣料是最常含有毒物質的商品,4605件中就占了1839件。

鄰苯二甲酸鹽常見於兒童上衣的衣料。華盛頓法令規定,苯二甲酸丁芐酯和鄰苯二甲酸二丁酯必須呈報,因為科學證據顯示,這些物質是內分泌干擾物和發育或生殖毒素。除了鄰苯二甲酸鹽,其他常用於兒童衣料的「兒童高風險化學物質」還包括內分泌干擾物、發育或生殖毒素以及致癌物質。

雙酚A則是一種塑膠軟化劑,會隨著兒童的吸咬溶入唾液中。部分報告顯示,玩偶、軟性玩具的塑膠配件、鞋子、飾品、沐浴和泳池玩具、戶外遊戲和多種大型玩具都含有雙酚A。因為有科學證據指出它是一種發育和生殖毒素,華盛頓法令規定雙酚A為必須呈報物質。

最後,報告呼籲通路量販店業者確保自家銷售產品不含毒化學物質。

Toxics Pervade Kids’ Products, Washington Disclosure Law Shows
SEATTLE, Washington, February 6, 2014 (ENS)

Makers of children’s products report that they are using toxic chemicals in children’s toys, clothing, safety products and bedding. The reports were filed with the State of Washington in 2013 under the state’s new disclosure law, the Children’s Safe Products Act.

A study summarizing these reports, “What’s on Your List? Toxic Chemicals in Your Shopping Cart,” reveals the prevalence of chemicals that can cause cancer, hormone disruption, and reproductive and developmental problems in childrens products on the shelves of many of the country’s largest retailers.

Washington selected these 66 chemicals for reporting because scientific evidence links them to serious health effects and because children are likely to be exposed to them.

These reports of “Chemicals of High Concern to Children” being used in children’s toys, clothing, safety products and bedding were filed by manufacturers between March and September 2013.

Some of the chemicals reported are: formaldehyde, bisphenol A (BPA), parabens, phthalates, heavy metals, flame retardants and industrial solvents.

All health effects information given in the report is based on information compiled by Washington’s Department of Health to create the reporting list of Chemicals of High Concern to Children.

Among the total 4,605 reports of toxic chemicals in children’s products are reports of cancer-causing formaldehyde in children’s tableware and harmful flame retardants in car seats and toys.

Clothing items were the most often reported, accounting for 1,839 out of 4,605 total reports during this six-month period.

Phthalates were reported in children’s tops and upper wear. Butyl benzyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate must be reported under Washington’s disclosure law because of scientific evidence that they are endocrine disruptors and developmental or reproductive toxicants. Di-n-octyl phthalate, Diisodecyl phthalate and diisononyl phthalate are developmental toxicants. Diethyl phthalate is an endocrine disruptor.

In addition to phthalates, other Chemicals of High Concern to Children were reported as being present in clothing, including endocrine disruptors, developmental or reproductive toxicants, and carcinogens.

Some reports showed that Bisphenol A, a softener of plastics that leaches into saliva if children suck or bite the object, is used in the plastic parts of dolls and soft toys. Other products reported as containing BPA include shoes, jewelry, bath and pool water toys, outdoor games and play structures.

BPA must be reported under Washington’s disclosure law because scientific evidence indicates that it is a developmental and reproductive toxicant.

Finally, the report calls on retailers to make sure that the products on their shelves are free of toxic chemicals.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS