不只是惱人 交通噪音致短命 影響1/4歐洲人 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

不只是惱人 交通噪音致短命 影響1/4歐洲人

2014年12月25日
摘譯自2014年12月19日ENS丹麥,哥本哈根報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

噪音的影響層面特別廣。歐洲環境署(EEA)19日首次針對噪音程度與環境和公共健康的關係,發表評估報告。這份「2014年歐洲噪音」(Noise in Europe 2014報告顯示,高達1億2千5百萬的歐洲人暴露於超過法定標準的道路交通噪音,每年導致早亡案例多達10,000例。

超過1億2千5百萬的歐洲人,暴露在高於法定標準的道路交通噪音之中。(來源:Juanedc.com)

噪音環境致心血管疾病 歐洲2千萬人受影響

報告指出,每4個歐洲人就有1個暴露在歐盟評估與行動標準55分貝以上,造成間接和直接的健康影響,影響範圍達28個歐盟國,近2千萬人,打擾約8百萬人的睡眠。

報告引用人體與動物實驗的結果指出,「暴露於噪音之下,可導致血壓升高和血管收縮。長時間暴露下,比較敏感的人可能會發展出永久性的健康後果,如高血壓和心臟疾病。」

EEA估計,環境噪音和43,000例入院、900,000例高血壓和每年高達10,000過早死亡有關。

報告說,道路交通是歐洲的主要噪音來源,接著是鐵路、機場和工業。大城市比較吵。超過250,000人的大城市,暴露於高於法定標準噪音的人口比例較高。告主張,建造新的基礎建設時就應該把噪音考量在內。而安靜的地區應該受到保護。

噪音影響範圍廣 野生動物也受其害

眾多研究顯示,噪音也可能嚴重影響野生動物。

噪音的影響不只在人身上看到,也反映在陸地和海洋野生動物的分佈與健康狀況,還有學童的學習能力,社會並為此付出昂貴的經濟代價。

報告欲量化歐洲噪音規模,評估目前的行動作為未來對策的參考。EEA指出,歐盟第七屆環境行動計畫其中一個目標是在2020年大幅減少噪音,朝世界衛生組織的建議水準邁進,具有相當高的政治企圖心。

不過作者也直言,各國的噪音暴露報告並不完整,最近一次數據蒐集只收到預期資料量的44%,因此難以產生完整的評估和未來展望。缺乏可比較的統一評估方法,不同國家甚至單一國家內的噪音暴露評估往往顯著不一致。

噪音地圖資訊公開 歐盟草擬對策

2002年6月歐洲議會和理事會採用環境噪音指令「END」(Environmental Noise Directive)。END可當做發展道路和鐵路交通降噪策略的基礎,但沒有設定限值,也沒有成員國可立即採用的行動計畫。

END要求成員國監測噪音並為主要道路、鐵路、機場和都會區繪製噪音地圖,以評估全歐被噪音干擾以及影響睡眠的人數。

成員國必須依奧胡斯公約(Aarhus Convention)的原則公告噪音值、噪音的影響並提出對策。需要時,當局必須規劃減噪行動計畫,並讓環境噪音品質佳的地方繼續保持。

最後,歐盟當局必須發展出長期的歐盟策略,包含減少受噪音影響人數,並提供社區減噪政策的框架。

EU Traffic Noise Causes 10,000 Premature Deaths a Year
OPENHAGEN, Denmark, December 19, 2014 (ENS)

More than 125 million Europeans could be exposed to levels of road traffic noise above legal guidelines, causing up to 10,000 premature deaths each year, finds a new assessment published today by the European Environment Agency (EEA).

“Noise in Europe 2014,” the EEA’s first noise assessment report, analyzes exposure to noise levels and the environmental and public health problems that result.

The effects of noise are particularly widespread. For the one in four Europeans exposed to noise levels above the EU’s threshold for assessment and action, 55 decibels, there are both direct and indirect health effects, the report states.

Traffic noise annoys almost 20 million and disturbs the sleep of an estimated eight million residents of the 28 European Union Member States.

“Noise exposure can increase blood pressure and vasoconstriction. After prolonged exposure, susceptible individuals may develop more permanent effects such as hypertension and heart disease,” the report states, basing this conclusion on laboratory studies in humans and animals.

Environmental noise is linked to 43,000 hospital admissions, 900,000 cases of hypertension and up to 10,000 premature deaths per year, the EEA estimates.

Road traffic is the main source of noise in Europe, the report says, followed by railways, airports and industry.

Noise pollution is a growing environmental concern. It is caused by a varied number of sources and is widely present not only in the busiest urban environments, it is also pervading once natural environments.

The adverse effects can be found in the well-being of exposed human populations, in the health and distribution of wildlife on the land and in the sea, in the abilities of our children to learn properly at school and in the high economic price society must pay because of noise pollution.

This report aims to quantify the scale of the problem, assess what actions are being taken and to consider future actions that might solve the problem.

Larger cities are noisier. Cities housing more than 250,000 people generally have a larger share of the population exposed to levels above the legal guidelines.

Noise considerations should be incorporated into planning and building new infrastructure according to the report. Moreover, quiet areas should be protected.

Wildlife may also be seriously affected by noise, according to a mounting body of evidence.

They report that “political ambitions are high” with the European Union’s Seventh Environment Action Programme containing the objective that noise pollution in the EU will significantly decrease by 2020, moving closer to World Health Organization recommended levels.

But the authors say that a complete assessment and future outlook are hindered by the fact that exposure estimates reported by countries are not complete, with as little as 44 percent of the expected amount of data delivered in the latest reporting round.

The lack of comparable and common assessment methods often causes significant inconsistencies in exposure estimates, between different countries and within a single country, the report states.

In June 2002 the European Parliament and Council adopted the Environmental Noise Directive, also known as the “END.”

It aims at providing a basis for developing EU measures to reduce noise emitted by major sources such as road and rail vehicles, but does not set binding limit values, or prescribe the measures to be included in Member States’ action plans.

It does require Member States to monitor the environmental problem and draw up “strategic noise maps” for major roads, railways, airports and agglomerations. These maps are used to assess the number of people annoyed and sleep-disturbed respectively throughout Europe

Member States must inform and consult the public about noise exposure, its effects, and the measures considered to address noise, in line with the principles of the Aarhus Convention.

Authorities must draw up action plans to reduce noise where necessary and maintain environmental noise quality where it is good.
 

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS