不過CITES也聯合夥伴強力反擊。2010年，國際打擊野生物犯罪聯盟（International Consortium on Combatting Wildlife Crime, ICCWC）成立，成員包括CITES、國際刑警組織、聯合國藥物與犯罪辦公室、世界銀行和世界海關組織。
ICCWC的宗旨是改變目前風險偵測和執法步調太慢的現況，讓嚴重野生物和森林犯罪能被強力、快速反制。前國際動物福利基金會成員、英國環境與社會問題智庫公司Bumblebee Connect策略總監Satyen Sinha說，ICCWC犯罪分析工具是目前最重要的反制工具之一。ICCWC犯罪分析工具自2012年起，協助許多政府管理地面的野生物犯罪戰爭。
Vulnerable Sharks and Rays
Delegates to CoP17 will receive updates on actions taken to protect sharks and rays following the last meeting of the Parties, CoP16 in Bangkok.
There, five shark species – the oceanic white tip, porbeagle and three species of hammerhead – and all manta rays were given protection under CITES Appendix II, with trade in these species allowed but regulated to prevent over-exploitation.
In Johannesburg, CoP17 Parties will be asked to consider three more proposals to bring sharks and rays under CITES Appendix II trade controls, to include: the Silky shark, Carcharhinus falciformis; Thresher sharks, and Devil rays.
Crime Syndicates Never Sleep
How much is the illegal wildlife trade worth?
Dr. Richard Thomas, TRAFFIC Global Communications Coordinator, believes that valuing such trade is counterproductive.
“Messaging that emphasizes the supposed high value of wildlife products on the black market risks attracting the attention of the very criminal elements the world is seeking to deter,” he told ENS.
But CITES is fighting back by forming a powerful partnership. In 2010, ICCWC, (say ick-wic) was formed. The abbreviation stands for International Consortium on Combatting Wildlife Crime. It is a collaboration among CITES, the international police force INTERPOL, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the World Bank, and the World Customs Organization.
At CoP17, ICCWC will report to the delegates on its activities.
The aim of ICCWC is to usher in a new era where perpetrators of serious wildlife and forest crime will face a formidable and coordinated response, rather than the present situation where the risk of detection and punishment is all too low.
Satyen Sinha, director of strategy at Bumblebee Connect, an international knowledge startup for environmental and social problems based in Manchester, UK, believes that “the ICCWC Toolkit is one of the most important tools.” Available since 2012, the Toolkit helps struggling governments manage this wildlife war on the ground.
Sinha, formerly with the International Fund for Animal Welfare, would like to see accomplishments at this CITES conference that include: 1) approval of the pangolin proposals, 2) rejection of the Swaziland white rhino proposal, 3) stronger protections for lions, and 4) rejection of the EU bloc voting proposal.”
The EU’s bloc vote can be a problem for wildlife.
The logic behind the EU vote is that by having all 27 member states adopt a common position over a proposal, the bloc vote can increase Europe’s influence at the CITES conference.
A two-thirds majority is needed for proposals within CITES to pass, so the EU’s 27 votes make up a big chunk of the vote. Sometimes, it’s enough to determine the fate of a proposal, such as CITES 2013 rejection of a ban on polar bear hunting due to the opposition of Denmark, arguing for the right of its satellite state Greenland to hunt the bears. All EU countries abstained, except Denmark which voted against the proposal. The hunt continues.
So, How Does CITES Work?
CITES regulates international trade in selected species with a licensing system — import and export permits. Each Party must designate a Management Authority and a Scientific Authority. For the United States, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service fills both roles. The Scientific Authority “advises on the effects of trade on the status of the species” and the Management Authority issues permits.
Delegates of the 182 Parties vote to include species on one of three lists — Appendix I, II, or III – that divide the species “according to the degree of protection they need.”
Commercial trade Appendix I listed species is banned. Trade in species listed on Appendix II or III is legal as long as CITES procedures and domestic laws are followed.