打擊空污、垃圾食物 全球政府領導人因應「非傳染性疾病」 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

打擊空污、垃圾食物 全球政府領導人因應「非傳染性疾病」

2018年10月12日
環境資訊中心外電;姜唯 翻譯;林大利 審校;稿源:ENS

9月底聯合國大會揭開序幕,世界衛生組織(WHO)成員國承諾加強因應非傳染性疾病,包括癌症、心肺疾病、中風和糖尿病,並透過減少食物中的鹽、糖和反式脂肪來促進心理健康和福祉。

WHO指出,非傳染性疾病(noncommunicable disease,NCDs)的增加主要由四大風險因素驅動——抽菸、缺乏運動、酒精濫用和不健康的飲食。

速食。Photo by NeONBRAND on Unsplash
不健康的飲食導致非傳染性疾病。Photo by NeONBRAND on Unsplash。

9月27日,聯合國大會舉行了第三次非傳染性疾病預防和控制高級會議,審查全球和各國制訂相關因應措施的進度。大會要求,食品製造商務必在包裝營養標示上清楚說明成分,並避免向兒童推銷不健康的食品和飲料。

各國領導人同意為自己國家非傳染性疾病的預防和治療負起責任,並一致認同應透過健全的法律和財政措施,保護人們免受菸草、不健康食品和其他有害產品的侵害,例如限制酒類廣告、禁菸,以及對含糖飲料課稅。

領導人承諾將實施一系列政策,預防和控制WHO強調的非傳染性疾病,包括公共教育、提升公眾的健康生活意識、接種HPV疫苗以預防子宮頸癌,以及治療高血壓和糖尿病。WHO估計,如果能徹底施行這些政策,從現在起到2030年,將為低收入和中低收入國家帶來3500億美元的經濟增長。

其他承諾重點包括對抗兒童肥胖症、推廣規律運動、減少空氣污染、改善心理健康和福祉。

WHO在大會上發表了第三版國家概況報告,評估國家實現預防和控制非傳染性疾病目標的進度。

根據報告,2016年四種主要非傳染性疾病之一的過早死亡風險降至18%,比2010年低5%,但照這個速度,不太可能達到永續發展目標所要求的2030年前減少三分之一。

全世界每10個死亡人口中,有七個死於非傳染性疾病,尤其是心血管和呼吸系統疾病、癌症和糖尿病,30至69歲之間過早死亡總數高達4100萬人,大部分來自開發中國家,其中更有1500萬人死於壯年。

左:聯合國副秘書長阿米娜‧穆罕默德(Amina J. Mohammed)。右:第73屆聯合國大會主席埃斯皮諾薩(Maria Fernanda Espinosa Garces)。圖片來源:Ariana Lindquist /UN
左:聯合國副秘書長阿米娜‧穆罕默德(Amina J. Mohammed)。右:第73屆聯合國大會主席埃斯皮諾薩(Maria Fernanda Espinosa Garces)。圖片來源:Ariana Lindquist /UN

World Leaders Pledge to Fight Unhealthy Foods
NEW YORK, New York, October 4, 2018 (ENS)

Heads of state and government have committed to intensify their efforts to tackle noncommunicable diseases including cancers, heart and lung diseases, stroke, and diabetes, and to promote mental health and well-being by reducing salt, sugar and transfat in foods.

The political declaration taken during the opening of the United Nations General Assembly in late September reaffirms the global leadership of the World Health Organization, WHO, in the fight to beat noncommunicable diseases and promote mental health.

WHO says the rise of noncommunicable diseases is driven by four major risk factors: tobacco use, physical inactivity, the harmful use of alcohol and unhealthy diets.

On September 27, the United Nations General Assembly staged the third High-level Meeting on the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases, which reviewed the global and national progress achieved in putting measures in place that protect people from dying too young from heart and lung diseases, cancers and diabetes.

Food manufacturers are asked to use nutrition labeling on packaged foods to inform consumers, and to restrict the marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to children.

World leaders agreed to take responsibility themselves for their own countries’ efforts to prevent and treat noncommunicable diseases.

They agreed that these efforts should include robust laws and fiscal measures to protect people from tobacco, unhealthy foods, and other harmful products, for example by restricting alcohol advertising, banning smoking, and taxing sugary drinks.

They committed to implement a series of policies to prevent and control these diseases recommended by WHO – public education and awareness campaigns to promote healthier lifestyles, vaccinating against HPV virus to protect against cervical cancer and treating hypertension and diabetes.

WHO estimates that implementing all these policies could generate US$350 billion in economic growth in low and lower-middle-income countries between now and 2030.

Other commitments focus on halting the rise of childhood obesity, promoting regular physical activity, reducing air pollution and improving mental health and well being.

WHO has launched its third Country Profiles report to assess national progress in meeting targets to prevent and control noncommunicable diseases.

The report found that the risk of premature death from one of the four main noncommunicable diseases had declined to 18 percent in 2016, a relative reduction of five percent from 2010. But the rate of progress is unlikely to meet the Sustainable Development Goal target of a one-third reduction in premature deaths from noncommunicable diseases by 2030.

Noncommunicable diseases, primarily cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cancers and diabetes, currently account for the deaths of seven in every 10 people worldwide, 41 million, including 15 million in the prime of their lives, ages 30-69, mostly from developing countries.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

作者

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。

林大利

於特有生物研究保育中心服務,小鳥和棲地是主要的研究對象。是龜毛的讀者,認為龜毛是探索世界的美德。