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洛杉磯機場大調查 衝擊在地社區污染

2008年03月06日
摘譯自2008年2月25日綜合外電美國,洛杉磯報導;朱以方編譯;莫聞審校

飛機所排放的有毒物質會引發呼吸道疾病。圖片來源:Wikipedia洛杉磯機場委員會成員在25日投票決定,資助美國有史以來最大的一宗研究計畫,讓計畫將調查機場運作所產生的有毒污染物對附近社區的衝擊。這項票決授權委員會雇用獨立的專業單位Jacobs Consultancy公司,自6月份起在洛杉磯國際機場進行調查研究,這項計畫金額高達215萬美元。

洛杉磯機場的客運量位居全球第五大,貨運量則居全球第七名。回應環境衝擊報告書草稿的洛杉磯機場主計畫增訂版指出,因為這些污染物所引發的健康影響,特別是慢性吸引道疾病,例如氣喘,在缺乏醫療照顧的弱勢族群中特別明顯。

凱伊(Laurie Kaye)是捍衛環境基金會的政策分析師,也是洛杉磯機場經濟環境教育正義聯盟的會員,他表示:「我們要向委員會成員致敬,因為他們資助這項空前的研究計畫,該計畫可以提供非常重要的資料,來保護在洛杉磯機場附近居住、玩耍及就學的孩子們。這項計畫將長時間收集各領域專家的研究結果,包括法規單位、學術研究、空氣污染監控,以及來自El Segundo和洛杉磯機場聯盟的代表。」

天納(Flor Barajas-Tena)是新經濟發展洛杉磯聯盟(LAANE)的主席,也是LANNE在洛杉磯機場經濟環境教育正義聯盟的代表。他表示:「委員會的這項劃時代決定,將使洛杉磯得以改善機場附近社區的惡劣空氣品質。這項研究計畫正是社區利益如何成功建立健康社區的範例。」

這項計畫其實是LAWA (Los Angeles World Airport)於3年前的3月與洛杉磯聯盟簽署合約的部份條件,洛杉磯聯盟代表了20多個學區、工會、環保及社區團體。這項社區福利協議(Community Benefits Agreement, CBA)提供了相當於5億元的實施計畫,來彌補洛杉磯機場110億元計畫所造成的衝擊。實施計畫主要是針對居住在機場附近的低收入戶與弱勢族群。所提供的福利包括減少噪音、就業訓練、優先就業機會、生活津貼、健康調查與綠建築原則。

最後,社區福利協議要求所有的建案都必須採取最佳可控制技術來施作以減少污染排放。為了強化這項條款,LAWA和洛杉磯聯盟共同合作,雇用他們自己的跑道警察,這些人被稱為「獨立監督人」。在美國的其他機場,並沒有這樣的工作。

今天,所有的飛機及載運工具均被更新設計生產,可以降低會引發心臟病、心律不整、氣喘、肺功能衰退、支氣管炎、夭折等問題的有毒物質。這是相當於是減少450萬哩的哩程或來回月球9趟所會產生的有毒物質。

Study is part of historic Community Benefits Agreement with area residents
LOS ANGELES, CA, February 25, 2008 --/WORLD-WIRE/--

The Los Angeles Board of Airport Commissioners voted today to fund the largest study in the nation examining toxic sources of pollution attributable to airport operations and the impact on nearby communities. The vote authorized the hiring of an independent expert, Jacobs Consultancy, to conduct the $2.15 million study starting in June at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX).

LAX is the fifth busiest airport in the world in passenger traffic and the seventh busiest in cargo. The LAX Master Plan Supplement to the Draft Environmental Impact Report concluded that “the health effects associated with these pollutants, particularly chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, have been found to be prevalent among certain minority populations who may also have less access to healthcare.”

“We salute the board of commissioners for funding this unprecedented study to provide vitally important data to protect children who live, play and attend school near LAX,” said Laurie Kaye, a policy analyst for Environmental Defense and a member of the LAX Coalition for Economic, Environmental, and Educational Justice. “This study is the result of a very long process of drawing together experts across regulatory agencies, academics in the field of receptor modeling and air pollution monitoring, and representatives from El Segundo and the LAX Coalition.”

“This landmark decision by the Board of Airport Commissioners will enable the City to alleviate some of the worst air quality impacts on communities near LAX,” said Flor Barajas-Tena, Director of the Los Angeles Alliance for a New Economy (LAANE) and LAANE’s representative on the LAX Coalition for Economic, Environmental, and Educational Justice. “This study is an example of how community benefits can contribute to the creation of healthy communities.”

The study is part of the historic, legally binding contract that LAWA signed three years ago this month with more than 20 school districts, labor unions, and environmental and community based groups represented by the LAX Coalition. This Community Benefits Agreement (CBA) with LAWA provided $500 million of measures to offset the impact of LAX’s $11 billion Master Plan on low income, heavily minority population areas surrounding the airport. These benefits include residential noise reduction, job training, a first-source hiring program, a living wage, a health study and green building principles.

Finally, the CBA requires all construction equipment to be retrofitted with the best available control technology to reduce emissions. To enforce this provision, LAWA and the LAX Coalition have worked together to hire their own runway cop called the “independent third party monitor.” No other airport in the country has ever had anyone in a similar job.

To date, vehicles now retrofitted have reduced toxic particulate matter that is associated with heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, asthma attacks, reduced lung function, bronchitis, and premature death by the equivalent of 4.5 million less car miles traveled or more than nine round trips to the moon.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS