2006冬季奧運 最環保的冰上競賽 | 環境資訊中心

2006冬季奧運 最環保的冰上競賽

2006年02月15日
ENS義大利,杜林報導;楊璧如、莫聞、蘇家億編譯;陳瑞賓審校

第二十屆冬季奧運開幕式已準備就緒。而由超過3500名志工及250名的工作人員擔綱演出的開幕表演,10日晚間八時在嚴密的安全戒護下展開。而來自85個國家、超過2500名的15項競賽項目好手,目前已抵達義大利杜林,他們進駐的奧運選手村則是由零污染建材所打造的親環境建築。

這是歐洲第一個被公認為綠色奧運的活動,第二十屆杜林冬季奧運組委會對此感到相當自豪。

第二十屆冬季奧運及第九屆杜林殘障冬季奧運會,均利用了歐盟提供的「生態工具」來達成綠色設計的目標。這些生態工具是歐洲共同體體制下所發展出來的環境控制及管理系統──「環境管理與稽核系統」(Eco-Management and Audit Scheme)以及「歐洲生態分類」(European Eco-Classification)系統。杜林冬季奧運組委會主席卡斯特拉尼表示,奧會主辦單位決定利用這些工具,「來協助達成我們所設定的環境永續目標。」

確保奧運活動對氣候無害,是杜林冬季奧運組委會計畫中重要的基礎。因此,在運動會期間,來自聯合國環境規劃署由執行長托佛所率領的代表團,將在15日晚間參加一場「綠色晚宴」,慶祝京都議定書在16日生效屆滿一週年。

為期16天的冬季奧運賽事期間,預計將排放10萬公噸的二氧化碳,為抵銷這些碳排放,讓大會達到「碳平衡」(carbon neutral)目標,組委會進行了一項「杜林氣候襲產」(HECTOR)計畫,在國內外資助多項造林、改善能源效能以及再生能源發展的計畫。

組委會也發展出一套全面監測計畫,全程監測奧運期間的16項環境指標,包括水循環、空氣品質、土壤利用、能源消耗、廢棄物產量、生態系統、地景與城區環境。

配合活動的物流商與服務提供廠商,也都是經過考量其產品的生態特性而挑選出來的。例如,搭配歐盟的旅館服務生態標章,杜林冬奧組委會向各觀光景點和競賽場地週邊的12家旅店推廣生態標章認證,並提供必要的技術支援協助其取得資格。

諸多環保方案中還有一項「天然冷凍劑」(Refrigerants, Naturally!)新方案,該項自願性方案由冬奧會兩大贊助商──麥當勞與可口可樂,加上聯合利華公司共同出資支持,並由環境規劃署與綠色和平組織支援;方案目標是推廣各攤位販售點使用替代冷凍技術來冷凍食品和冷飲,以保護地球氣候與臭氧層。

可口可樂在運動會場設置了1,000具冷飲設備,均是利用二氧化碳來當作冷卻劑,如此一來,可減少氟氯碳化物(CFC)及氟氫碳化物(HFC)等臭氧層破壞物質的使用。環境規劃署表示,如果這項技術推廣到全球規模,將可大幅降低冷飲業者所排放的溫室氣體,同時又可保障地球的臭氧保護層不被破壞。

此外,杜林冬奧組委會的垃圾處理計畫,則希望將固態垃圾量處理達到「零廢棄」目標。這個計畫結合有效率的能源回收系統,回收在比賽期間所製造的68%有機及其他乾性廢棄物,其中32%的垃圾將可轉換成燃料。

希臘籍的歐盟執委會環境執委戴莫斯說:「體育活動對環境有重大且長遠的衝擊效果,我希望杜林的經驗可以對未來的體育活動主辦單位有些激勵效果。」

The Greenest Games on Ice
TURIN, Italy, February 10, 2006 (ENS)

Everything is ready for the Opening Ceremony of the XX Olympic Winter Games. The opening show, staged with the collaboration of more than 3,500 volunteers and 250 staff, will begin tonight at 8 o'clock local time under tight security. More than 2,500 athletes from 85 nations competing in 15 different disciplines have arrived in Turin and have moved into the eco-friendly buildings of the new Olympic Villages, constructed of pollution-free materials.

These will be the first certified green Olympic Games in Europe, a fact of which the Torino Organizing Committee XX Olympic Winter Games (TOROC) is very proud.

Both the XX Olympic Winter Games and the IX Paralympic Winter Games of Torino achieved this green designation by applying the ecological tools provided by the EU - the European Community system for the control and management of the environment, the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme, and the European Eco-Classification system. TOROC President Valentino Castellani said Olympics organizers decided to adopt these tools "to help us reach the objectives that we had set for environmental sustainability."

Ensuring a climate-friendly Olympics is one of the cornerstones of TOROC's plans. During the Games, a delegation from the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) led by Executive Director Klaus Toepfer will participate in a "green dinner" on February 15 to celebrate the first anniversary of the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol on February 16.

The HEritage Climate TORino (HECTOR) project is designed to make the Winter Olympics carbon neutral. By supporting forestry, energy efficiency and renewable energy schemes both at home and abroad, the Torino Olympics will be able to offset the estimated 100,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide that will be generated during the 16 days of the Games.

An extensive monitoring plan was developed for the entire Olympic area which includes 16 environmental indicators, including water cycle, air quality, soil use, energy consumption, waste production, ecosystems, landscape, and urban environment.

Suppliers of goods and services involved in the Games were considered and selected based on the ecological quality of their products. In line with the European eco-label for hotel services, TOROC is promoting an eco-label trademark to tourist sites and 12 hotels in the Olympic areas and provided the technical support necessary for them to obtain certification.

A new initiative – Refrigerants, Naturally! – forms part of this environmental component of the Games. Two of the official sponsors of the Olympic Games, McDonald's Corporation and the Coca Cola Company, are the founders of Refrigerants, Naturally! together with Unilever. This voluntary initiative, supported by UNEP and Greenpeace, is promoting alternative point-of-sale refrigeration technology in the food and beverage industry that safeguards the climate as well as the ozone layer.

Coca Cola has deployed more than 1,000 beverage machines at the Torino Games that use carbon dioxide as the refrigerant. These machines eliminate the need for ozone-damaging chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) and hydroflurocarbons (HFCs). If this technology were adopted globally on a large scale, it could make a significant improvement in this industry sector's efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while at the same time safeguarding the Earth's protective ozone shield, UNEP said.

The TOROC waste management plan is designed with the goal of reducing to zero the quantity of waste destined for rubbish dumps. The plan combines recycling of 68 percent of the organic and other dry waste material produced during the Games with an efficient system of energy retrieval - 32 percent of the waste will be transformed into fuel.

"Sports events have a significant and long-lasting impact on the environment," said European Environment Commissioner Stavros Dimas of Greece. "I hope the experience of Torino will serve as a stimulus for the organizers of sports events in the future."