布希政府黃石公園雪上摩托車提案遭聯邦法院否決 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

布希政府黃石公園雪上摩托車提案遭聯邦法院否決

2008年09月18日
摘譯自2008年9月15日ENS美國,華盛頓特區報導;謝芳怡編譯;蔡麗伶審校

美國聯邦法院15日裁定,布希政府批准增加黃石國家公園內的雪上摩托車數量,違反國家公園局保護乾淨空氣、野生物和國家公園內的寧靜以及維護遊客權益等基本法律義務。

儘管國家公園局提出科學解釋,表示此提案將會惡化噪音和廢氣排放的污染,破壞遊客的興致,交通問題也會危及北美野牛等其他黃石公園內的野生物,但布希政府仍批准增加雪上摩托車的使用量。

擁有超過200萬名會員的6個保育團體共同提出的訴訟案,15日由美國哥倫比亞特區法院蘇利文(Emmett Sullivan)法官裁定,布希政府的該項決策無效。

美國內政部長柯偉德(Dirk Kempthorne)、國家公園局局長波瑪(Mary Bomar)以及國家公園局內山區主管史耐德(Mike Snyder)所提出的冬季使用計劃,開放每天540輛娛樂用雪上摩托車和83輛雪車進入黃石公園,也遭到保育團體起訴。

這些原告保育團體認為布希政府的決策已違反包括國家公園局有機法案在內的許多法案。

蘇利文法官裁示國家公園局必須提出替代方案,確保所有遊客能安全地在公園內體驗自然生態,並遵守法律規定,維護黃石公園內的空氣品質、野生物種和大自然的環境。

原告團體共包括:黃石公園聯盟、國家公園保育協會、自然資源保護協會、峰巒俱樂部、荒野協會和冬季野地聯盟。

他們以國家公園局的研究結果做為舉證,顯示過去5年來,即使每天平均有263輛雪上摩托車進入公園內,這些車輛所產生的噪音已超出黃石公園的標準。

國家公園局的研究也指出,布希政府開放每天540輛雪上摩托車的決策,將會讓摩托車的使用量加倍,而遊客在園區超過半天以上能聽到車輛噪音的區域將擴大3倍。

研究中也發現,越多的雪上摩托車所排放的廢氣讓空氣中一氧化碳、碳氫化合物、微粒狀物質、苯和甲醛的濃度提高,園區內的空氣品質也會隨之惡化。越來越多的動物也會被迫離開原有的棲息地,進而影響其健康和提高死亡率。

黃石公園聯盟國家公園計劃負責人麥克納馬拉(Amy McNamara)表示:「這項裁決將可確保遊客在冬季至黃石公園旅行時,不會因為空氣和噪音污染而感到失望。」

Bush Snowmobile Plan for Yellowstone National Park Struck Down
WASHINGTON, DC, September 15, 2008 (ENS)

The Bush administration's authorization of increased snowmobile use in Yellowstone National Park violates the fundamental legal responsibility of the National Park Service to protect the clean air, wildlife, and natural quiet of national parks for the benefit of all visitors, a federal court ruled today.

The administration authorized increased snowmobile use despite scientific conclusions by the National Park Service that the decision would multiply noise and unhealthy exhaust, which disrupt the experiences of visitors, and traffic that harms Yellowstone's wildlife, including bison.

Judge Emmett Sullivan of the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia today invalidated the Bush decision in a case brought by six conservation groups that together represent more than two million members.

The groups sued the Interior Secretary Dirk Kempthorne, National Park Service Director Mary Bomar and Mike Snyder, director of the Intermountain Region of the National Park Service over their new Winter Use Plan that allows 540 recreational snowmobiles and 83 snowcoaches to enter Yellowstone every day.

The plaintiff groups claimed the Bush adminstration's decision violated numerous laws, including the National Park Service Organic Act.

The judge directed that the National Park Service must substitute a plan that ensures all visitors can safely experience the park, and uphold laws that require stronger protection of Yellowstone's air quality, wildlife, and natural sounds.

The plaintiff groups are: the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, the National Parks Conservation Association, the Natural Resources Defense Council, the Sierra Club, the Wilderness Society, and the Winter Wildlands Alliance.

They cited research conducted by the National Park Service showing that even with an average of 263 snowmobiles per day during the past five winters, snowmobile impacts have exceeded Yellowstone's noise thresholds.

Park service research showed that the 540 snowmobiles a day authorized by the administration would double the current snowmobile use and triple the area in Yellowstone where visitors would hear motorized noise for half or more of the visiting day.

More snowmobiles would degrade Yellowstone's air quality with snowmobile exhaust, which contains carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, particulates, benzene and formaldehyde, park service researchers found.

And the park service found that more animals would be pushed out of their preferred habitat, impacting their health and increasing mortality.

"This ruling will ensure that visitors are not disappointed by air and noise pollution when they make the one winter trip to Yellowstone of their lives," said Amy McNamara, National Parks Program director for the Greater Yellowstone Coalition.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS