全美年度十大瀕危河川 加州水資源最堪慮 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

全美年度十大瀕危河川 加州水資源最堪慮

2009年04月13日
摘譯自2009年4月8日ENS美國,華府報導;施宏燕編譯;禾引審校

2006年4月汛期時,San Joaquin河與北支流Kings河匯流處一景;攝影:Michael Mierzwa美國河川組織(American Rivers)執行長沃德(Rebecca Wodde)7日公布年度全美十大瀕危名單時表示:「我們的國家正處於能否使河川與淨水有轉變契機的時刻。水維繫生存,然而我們國家的水資源基本架構是如此地落後,讓乾淨飲水、洪水防範與河川健康面臨空前的威脅。」

這份2009年瀕危河川報告強調了沃德所謂「情況十分欠佳」的基礎水利設施,包括飲用水、廢水處理、暴雨排水系統,以及水壩與堤防。另外也顯示美國的河川系統需要更環保的思考,在21世紀需要更多的投資以保障水資源安全、公共健康、魚類與依賴健康河川的野生生物等。

美國最瀕危的河川其實就是肇因於過時的水源與洪水管理政策,而受到影響的是整個河川系統。美國河川組織警告,加州沙加緬度──聖華金河(Sacramento-San Joaquin River)系統正處於崩潰邊緣最關鍵的狀態。美國河川組織警告危機正來自各種影響,如氣候變遷、人口擴張、水源需求與物種瀕危等。

於南卡羅來納州、Pelzer西部的Saluda河;圖片來源:NOAA在2009年3月的報告,加州水資源部門警告沙加緬度──聖華金河三角洲濫災的危機在下一世紀很有可能會增加。報告並評估三角洲堤防的主要風險來自淹水、滲漏、陷落與地震危機。

沙加緬度──聖華金河三角洲供給加州2500萬加州人,約300萬英畝的農耕地水源。這份報告的發現將被用於發展堤防管理策略錯誤風險,並增加支持堤防維繫與改進的管理資金。

每年美國河川組織延攬來自河川團體、環境組織、社團、地方政府與納稅監測人等數千位來參與全美最瀕危河川的年度報告。邁入第23載的2009年度報告,強調了河川正面臨的是最不確定的未來,而非慢性問題的最壞情況。

報告也列舉許多將破壞河川的方案與提議以及關鍵決策者,並呼籲大眾為這些瀕危河川的權益採取行動。

‧2009年全美最瀕危河川名單請詳見ENS

Most Endangered American River: California's Sacramento-San Joaquin
WASHINGTON, DC, April 8, 2009 (ENS)

"Our nation is at a transformational moment when it comes to rivers and clean water," said Rebecca Wodder, president of American Rivers as she released the organization's annual list of America's 10 Most Endangered Rivers on Tuesday. "Water is life, yet our nation's water infrastructure is so outdated that our clean drinking water, flood protection and river health face unprecedented threats."

This year's report highlights the what Wodder calls the "sorry state" of the nation's water infrastructure - drinking water, wastewater and stormwater systems, and dams and levees ?and the need for green, 21st century investments to protect clean water, public health and safety, and the fish and wildlife that depend on healthy rivers.

The nation's most endangered river is actually an entire river system threatened by outdated water and flood management policies. California's Sacramento-San Joaquin River system, the largest watershed in the state is on the verge of collapse, American Rivers warns. The risks are numerous - climate change, population growth, water supply demands, and endangered species listings.

In a March report, California's Department of Water Resources warned that the risk of Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta island flooding is "likely to increase substantially over the next century." The report assesses major risks to Delta levees from floods, seepage, subsidence and earthquakes.

The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta provides water to as many as 25 million Californians and about three million acres of agricultural land. The report's findings will be used to develop a set of strategies to manage levee failure risks in the Delta and to improve the management of state funding that supports levee maintenance and improvement.

Each year, American Rivers solicits nominations from thousands of river groups, environmental organizations, outdoor clubs, local governments, and taxpayer watchdogs for its annual report on America's most endangered rivers. The report, now in its 23rd year, highlights the rivers facing the most uncertain futures rather than those suffering from the worst chronic problems.

The report presents alternatives to proposals that would damage rivers, identifies those who make the crucial decisions, and points out opportunities for the public to take action on behalf of each listed river.