巴西減排有成 將提早4年達成減排目標 | 環境資訊中心

巴西減排有成 將提早4年達成減排目標

2010年11月03日
摘譯自2010年10月27日ENS巴西,巴西利亞報導;林可麗編譯;范仕穎審校

2010年10月26日氣候變遷會議論壇,左為巴西總統盧拉(Lula),圖片來自:MMA。巴西總統盧拉(Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva)26日的氣候變遷論壇中宣布,巴西將提早4年達成預定的二氧化碳減排目標。

盧拉總統恭賀政府跨部會論壇成員為了促進巴西低碳經濟以及控制暖化地球的溫室氣體排放所做的努力。他表示,「今天的這項消息再次顯示了,巴西能為近年來建立的環境目標感到驕傲。自2003年起,政府各部會緊密合作解決氣候變遷的問題。即使在近來經濟強勢成長之下,我們的行動還是減低了28億公噸的二氧化碳排放量。如果能維持這樣的步調,而我們也很有自信能維持這樣的步調,巴西將能在2016年前完成二氧化碳減排的自願性目標。」

巴西是全世界最大的二氧化碳排放國之一,因為亞馬遜叢林的砍伐開發,造成了17%的林地被摧毀。砍伐時焚樹及樹腐爛的過程,都會導致二氧化碳釋放到大氣層中。但是根據盧拉總統指出,自從2003年建立了行動方案來防止與控制亞馬遜叢林的砍伐後,已將讓巴西毀林的速率減低了70%,並因此避免了相當於29億噸二氧化碳的排放。

盧拉總統並表示,巴西目前的砍伐率已達21年以來最低點。他說,「如果我們按照這個速度,可以提前4年達成在哥本哈根COP15會議上宣布的溫室氣體減排目標。現在,巴西絕對是全世界具體達成抗暖化成效最卓越的國家之一。」

在論壇中盧拉總統宣佈了3項新的提倡措施,目標是監測並且降低巴西國內的溫室氣體排放。

1. 巴西已經為聯合國氣候變化綱要公約(United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, UNFCCC)建立了第二版國家通訊(National Communication) 。第一版在2004年已遞呈UNFCCC。

2. 將為5個特定產業設立指引以及策略方針行動,以降低其溫室氣體排放。

3. 總統簽署了法令成立國家氣候變遷基金。巴西將成為全世界第一個利用石油供應鏈收益上繳的基金來資助應變與調適氣候變遷的國家。

從現在開始,國家氣候變遷基金執行委員會將能利用經費來管理、監控,與評估開發資源企劃案、研究案,以及應變與調適氣候變遷與其造成影響的應用層面。這個國家氣候變遷基金執行委員會由法令建立,由環境部協調,成員包含了政府機關的代表,科學界的研究學者,雇主,勞工,以及非政府組織。

在2011年,巴西的國家氣候變遷基金執行委員會有2億2千6百萬美元的預算,其中有2億美金是可償還的貸款,其餘的2千6百萬美元將由環境部管理,用以資助研究企劃,推動以及從事氣候變遷的衝擊評估。這些經費將可經由協議與合作條款調撥給各省與各個城市運用。

氣候基金將會資助對抗沙漠化以及調適氣候變遷的行動,也會支持教育提案以及訓練計畫,REDD(減少毀林及森林退化造成的溫室氣體排放,Reduction in Emission from Deforestation and forest Degradation),還有包括如開發技術、訂定公共政策、支持永續生產鏈,以及環境相關服務的費用。

Brazil Set to Meet Low-Carbon Targets Four Years Early
BRASILIA, Brazil, October 27, 2010 (ENS)

Brazil is on track to meet carbon dioxide emissions reduction targets four years earlier than promised, President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva announced Tuesday at a meeting of Brazil's Forum on Climate Change.

President Lula congratulated the members of the inter-governmental Forum on their efforts to advance Brazil's move toward a low-carbon economy and control emissions of greenhouse gases that warm the planet."Today's announcement shows once again that Brazil can be proud of the environmental agenda we have been building in recent years, said the President. Since 2003, we have been working closely to address climate change, and even with strong economic growth, our actions have already resulted in a reduction of 2.8 billion tons of carbon dioxide." "If we keep this pace - and everything indicates that we shall do so - we will accomplish our goal of voluntary carbon dioxide reductions in 2016, four years before we had promised," he said.

Brazil is one of the world's biggest carbon dioxide emitters, due to the clearing of the Amazon rainforest, 17 percent of which has been destroyed. Deforestation releases carbon into the atmosphere as trees burn or rot. But according to President Lula, since the Plan of Action to Prevent and Control Deforestation in the Amazon was established in 2003, Brazil has reduced the rate of Amazon deforestation by more than 70 percent, avoiding the emission of 2.9 billion tCO2eq (tons carbon equivalent). He said the country now has the lowest rate of deforestation in 21 years.

"If we keep this pace, the goal announced at COP 15 will advance in four years," said the President. "Today, Brazil is certainly one of the countries that has presented the most concrete results in tackling climate change."

President Lula announced three new initiatives geared toward measuring and lowering Brazil's national greenhouse gas emissions.

First, Brazil has developed its Second National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, UNFCCC. The first was submitted to the UNFCCC in 2004.

Next, the Lula administration will set guidelines and specify strategic actions to lower the greenhouse gas emissions of five specific industry sectors.

And third, the President signed a decree establishing rules for the National Fund on Climate Change, the first in the world to use funds from the profits of an oil supply chain to finance mitigation and adaptation to climate change.

From now on, the Fund's Steering Committee will be able to manage, monitor and evaluate the application of resources projects, studies and developments of mitigation and adaptation of climate change and its effects.

Established by decree and coordinated by the Ministry of Environment, the Steering Committee is composed of government representatives, the scientific community, employers, workers and nongovernmental organizations.

For 2011, the Committee has a budget of US$226 million, with $200 million as a repayable loan. The other $26 million will be administered by the Environment Ministry to invest in research projects, mobilization and impact assessments of climate change. This funding can be passed on to states and municipalities through agreements and terms of cooperation.

The Climate Fund will support activities aimed at combating desertification and adaptation to climate change. It will also support education initiatives and training projects, REDD, development including technology, public policy formulation, support to sustainable productive chains, and payment for environmental services.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS報導