保育紅毛猩猩雨林 獲利是種植油棕的三倍 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

保育紅毛猩猩雨林 獲利是種植油棕的三倍

2011年10月07日
摘譯自2011年9月28日ENS印尼,雅加達報導;李家寧編譯;蔡麗伶審校

北蘇門答臘的紅毛猩猩。照片來源:The Exo Guy網路相簿研究報告指出,保育紅毛猩猩主要棲息的雨林所獲得的利潤,比起伐林種油棕櫚所得的利潤,要高出兩倍。這份《蘇門達臘紅毛猩猩和森林保育經濟學》報告,是由印尼政府委託、聯合國環境規劃署(UNEP)轄下「人猿生存夥伴計畫」(GRASP)所執行的。

保育雨林的同時,也確保極度瀕臨絕種的紅毛猩猩族群,在蘇門答臘島(Sumatra)上的生存空間。這份報告警告,蘇門答臘某些地方的紅毛猩猩,最快會在2015年消失。

一對從獵人手中救出的母子,目前收容於蘇門答臘Bohorok紅毛猩猩中心。照片來源: Hulman Simangunsong網路相簿在蘇門答臘存活的野生紅毛猩猩數量,已從1900年的85,000隻銳減到目前的6,600隻以下。若數量持續下降,紅毛猩猩將是現存人猿類動物第一個在野外滅絕的物種。

全球有將近18%的溫室氣體排放,是來自隨著森林砍伐而來的土地利用改變。在2004年,森林消失所導致的溫室氣體排放量,比交通運輸的排放量還要高。

聯合國氣候變化綱要公約(UN Framework Convention on Climate Change)秘書處正籌備一項新的協議,讓森林保育事業可為印尼經濟、紅毛猩猩存續和全球氣候盡一份心力。

該項協議就是「減少毀林及森林退化造成的溫室氣體排放」進階版,英文縮寫REDD+(Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus)。透過這項機制,印尼政府可獲得資金,來進行REDD機制進階的工作(編按:即森林復育和永續管理)。REDD+的目標是希望在2020年前讓森林消失速度減半。

雨林兼具碳匯功能  保育超划算

UNEP的報告中,以現行碳交易價格來估算,蘇門答臘沿海、富有泥炭的森林,也是6,600隻紅毛猩猩密集聚集的地方,一公頃的價值達2.2萬美元;其保存的碳,在交易市場上價格約是7,420 到22,090美元之間。

若是種植棕櫚油樹,同樣的土地,一公頃價值卻是低於7,400美元。

就算是一般的森林,若能加以保育下來,所避免掉的碳排放,價值約在一公頃3,711到11,185美元之間。這比將土地用來經營農林業、永續伐木或是種植咖啡所得到的經濟,效益更高。

《蘇門達臘紅毛猩猩和森林保育經濟學》報告是由環保組織PanEco、YEL和世界農林中心(World Agroforestry Centre)和UNEP共同撰寫,他們呼籲國際投注更多經費,支持在紅毛猩猩主要棲息地實施REDD+。

印尼雨林排名世界第三  伐林速度也是世界前五名

伐木過後的土地,照片來源:ENS印尼政府的國有林面積達一億公頃,是世界上第三大的熱帶雨林,僅次於巴西和剛果民主共和國。

但是報告發現在2005年到2010年間,比起2000年到2005年,印尼森林消失的速度加速,使得印尼成為全球主要森林消失比率最多的五個國家之一。

蘇門答臘森林覆蓋的泥炭地,是陸地生態系統裡擁有豐富碳含量的土地,但是在1985年到2007年,蘇門答臘島上包括非法和合法,砍伐了將近一半的森林。

紅毛猩猩主要棲息在亞齊和北蘇門答臘兩個省。亞齊從1985年到2009年共失去超過22%的森林;而北蘇門答臘則在14年期間失去了超過43%的森林覆蓋。這些森林的消失皆導致紅毛猩猩的減少。

目前挪威政府正支持印尼政府減少濫伐和非法伐木,這是一項10億美金的協定,其中包含兩年的工作計畫,要停止非法開發泥炭地和重要林地。

挪威環境和國際發展部部長Eirk Solheim表示:「挪威政府正提供國際刑警組織額外的支持,來提高聯合國組織部門的和其他機構的合作以打擊非法伐木。」

Solheim說:「我們認為要讓REDD+計畫成功,處理非法伐木、協助提升印尼等國政府部門打擊犯罪能力,是非常重要的。」

聯合國的氣候公約會議將在今年11月到12月在南非德班(Durban)舉行,這份提前發表的新報告暗示著,其他國際組織有機會可以擴展REDD+在蘇門答臘和其他有熱帶雨林的區域的新方案。

UNEP行政執行長史坦納(Achim Steiner)表示:「就像這個報告顯示的,應該優先投資採納REDD+機制的永續林業方案,這不只是在氣候、紅毛猩猩保育和自然資源管理工作機會等方面具備好處,還能帶來多樣的綠色經濟效益。」

不永續伐林也為蘇門答臘帶來了水災和水資源缺乏的問題。

史坦納表示:「這份報告指出,因為濫伐,亞齊和北蘇門答臘有8成的河流水量減少了50%。」他警告,水量減少暗示著農業和糧食缺乏的危機,其中包括稻米產量和人類健康問題。

這份報告指出,森林砍伐是洪水災害增加的主因,且在過去十年已經影響了超過500,000的人。

估計有500多起火災和不合理的伐木有關。這些火災在過去十年影響了位於亞齊的Tripa沼澤森林,從2000年到2010年間造成的經濟損失估計超過100億美元。

史坦納表示:「將在德班舉辦的聯合國際氣候公約會議,需要在幾個議題上有所進展,包含REDD+,這是讓全球生溫控制在2℃以下的方法之一。另外,針對2012年6月舉行的聯合國永續發展大會(Rio+20),這麼做也代表願意加速且擴大21世紀永續發展的機會,這對大會來說是個有力而善意的訊息。」

為了兼顧蘇門答臘紅毛猩猩保育與經濟發展的,UNEP報告提出了幾項建議:

  1. 考量到二氧化碳儲存、紅毛猩猩棲地保育和生態系保護的利益,在蘇門答臘規劃新的REDD+實施區域。
  2. 建構詳細的空間規劃資料庫,尺度要包含區域、省級和全國,藉以描繪出森林保護區的範圍,促進永續的土地利用規劃。
  3. 對於高保育價值的土地,避免給予農業或伐木業特許權。
  4. 對蘇門答臘森林所提供的生態系服務價值,應改進評估方式。
  5. 發展其他可以取代伐木、採礦和農業的收入來源,像是永續旅遊。

Solheim表示:「這份報告強調,為森林或森林生態服務保育投入資金,不但有經濟效益,還能兼顧社會與環境層面;相比起來,為了短利而犧牲掉人類共同未來,遠遠不值。」

遠比為了短利而犧牲掉人類共同的未來是很不值得的。」

Indonesia Could Be Paid for Conserving Organutan Forests
JAKARTA, Indonesia, September 28, 2011 (ENS)

Conserving key Indonesian rainforests inhabited by organutans could generate revenues three times greater than clearcutting them for palm oil plantations, finds a new report requested by the Indonesian government from the UN Environment Programme, under its Great Apes Survival Partnership, GRASP.

At the same time, forest conservation would help to ensure survival of Critically Endangered orangutans on the island of Sumatra. The report warns that orangutan populations in some parts of Sumatra could disappear as early as 2015.

Fewer than 6,600 Sumatran orangutans exist in the wild today, down from an estimated 85,000 in 1900. If this rate of decline continues, the Sumatran orangutan could become the first of the great apes living today to go extinct in the wild.

Currently close to 18 percent of greenhouse gas emissions are linked with land use change, mainly through forest loss. In 2004, this amounted to greenhouse gas emissions greater than those of the global transport sector.

Under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, a new agreement is in negotiation that could make the economics of forest conservation work for the Indonesian economy, for orangutan survival, and for the global climate.

Known as REDD+, the mechanism would provide payments for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus additional forest "activities," with the aim of halving deforestation by 2020.

The UNEP report estimates that many of the coastal, peat-rich forests of Sumatra, where dense populations of the last 6,600 orangutans survive, may be worth up to a present value of $22,000 a hectare at current carbon prices that range from $7,420 to $22,090.

Cleared, the same land may generate revenues from palm oil plantations at less than $7,400 a hectare.

The carbon value of avoided deforestation even in ordinary forests ranges from $3,711 to $11,185 per hectare. This is much higher than the economic yield from other land-use practices such as agroforestry, sustainable logging and coffee.

The report, "The Orangutan and Economics of Forest Conservation in Sumatra," calls for more international support for REDD+ projects in key orangutan forests. Conservation organizations PanEco and YEL and the World Agroforestry Centre worked with UNEP in writing the report.

With nearly 100 million hectares (386,102 square miles) of state forest, Indonesia has the world's third largest area of tropical forest after Brazil and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

But the report finds that between 2005 and 2010, forest loss in Indonesia accelerated compared to 2000-2005 and places Indonesia within the highest five countries for percentage of primary forest loss globally.

The forested peatlands of Sumatra are among the most efficient carbon stores of any terrestrial ecosystem, but between 1985 and 2007, nearly half the forest on the island of Sumatra was logged - legally or illegally.

Sumatran orangutans inhabit two provinces, Aceh and North Sumatra. Aceh has experienced a total forest loss of over 22 percent from 1985 through 2009, while North Sumatra has lost over 43 percent of its forest cover during that 14-year period - with a consequent loss of orangutans.

Currently, the government of Norway is supporting the government of Indonesia in its efforts to reduce deforestation and illegal logging under a $1 billion agreement that includes a two-year suspension of new concessions that convert peatlands and primary forests.

Erik Solheim, Norwegian minister of the environment and international development, said his government is now providing additional support to the international police force, INTERPOL, towards enhancing collaboration among United Nations agencies and others to combat illegal logging.

"We recognize that in order to make REDD+ a success, tackling illegal logging and assisting governments such as Indonesia with the capacity to combat such crime, will be important," Solheim said.

UNEP says the new report, which comes in advance of the UN climate convention meeting in Durban, South Africa in November-December, indicates opportunities for other international donors to extend REDD+ initiatives in Sumatra and in other tropically-forested regions.

UNEP Executive Director Achim Steiner said, "Prioritizing investments in sustainable forestry including REDD+ projects can, as this report demonstrates, deliver multiple Green Economy benefits and not just in respect to climate, orangutan conservation and employment in natural resource management."

Deforestation is blamed for both flooding and water scarcity on Sumatra.

Steiner said the report indicates in Aceh and in North Sumatra there has been a reported 50 percent decline in water discharges in as many as 80 percent of rivers as a result of deforestation, "losses that have serious implications for agriculture and food security including rice production and human health," he warned.

Deforestation is cited in the report as a key cause for increased flooding that has impacted over 500,000 people over the last decade.

Unsustainable logging also may be linked to the over 500 fires that have impacted the Tripa swamp forests in Aceh province in the past 10 years with economic losses estimated at over $10 billion between 2000 and 2010.

"The UN climate convention meeting in Durban needs to make progress on several fronts, including REDD+, as one way of keeping a global temperature to under 2 degree Celsius," said Steiner.

"In doing so it can send a strong and supportive signal to Rio+20 in June 2012 in terms of accelerating and scaling up the full range of opportunities for a sustainable 21st century," he said.

To chart a way forward for conserving orangutan populations in Sumatra, while enhancing opportunities for economic development, the UNEP report recommends:

  • Designating new forested areas in Sumatra for REDD+ selected by taking into account the benefits for carbon storage, conserving orangutan habitat and for the protection of ecosystem services
  • Maintaining a master spatial planning database on regional, provincial and national levels to map defined boundaries of protected forests to improve sustainable land use planning
  • Avoiding agricultural and timber concessions on land with high conservation value
  • Improving the valuation of the ecosystem services provided by Sumatra's forests
  • Establishing income-generating alternatives to logging, mining and agriculture, such as sustainable tourism

Solheim said, "This study underlines that investing and re-investing in forests and the services they provide can be far more profitable and with social and environmental outcomes than trading away our common future for short-term gains."