農藥害蜜蜂消失 歐盟擬在農作授粉期禁用 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

農藥害蜜蜂消失 歐盟擬在農作授粉期禁用

2013年02月06日
摘譯自2013年2月1日ENS比利時,布魯塞爾報導;藍巧軒編譯;蔡麗伶審校

歐盟執委會最近提出新案,打算從7月1日起,在農作物授粉期間禁用3種對蜜蜂有害的殺蟲劑。發起禁用殺蟲劑活動的環保團體「地球之友」指出,「這個由歐盟所發起的重大提案,是解決蜜蜂消失問題最初且重要的一步。」

位於法國諾曼第布艾斯 La Quinetière的花園中,一隻蜜蜂停在雛菊上。(攝影:William Warby)

可尼丁(Clothianidin)、益達胺(Imidacloprid)、賽速安(Thiamethoxam)這3種化學藥劑,通稱為新菸鹼類殺蟲劑,它們是世界各地最常使用的殺蟲劑。它們將被禁止使用於歐盟境內的玉米、油菜、向日葵等作物,禁用期至少2年。

歐盟境內約有2500種野生蜂類,「西方蜜蜂」(Apis mellifera)是其中一種經過人類訓養、管理的蜜蜂。但在整個歐洲,野生蜂類等授粉昆蟲,包括馴養過的蜜蜂正在急劇的減少。

歐盟執委會表示,這些授粉昆蟲每年為歐洲農業帶來至少220億歐元的利益,歐盟境內84%的作物需要昆蟲來為其授粉,更有超過80%的野生花草需要授粉昆蟲來協助其繁殖。

在歐盟執委會於2012年4月發出的要求,歐洲食品安全局 (EFSA)在1月16日發表了3份針對這些化學物質所作的風險評估報告。

這些風險評估報告的重點放在3種化學物質接觸的主要途徑:在為花朵噴灑農藥時殘留在花蜜與花粉中、來自播種時產生的粉塵或使用顆粒劑時接觸到、殘留在噴過農藥的植物分泌出的液體中。

雖然這些評估報告可能因為缺少資料而不是非常完整,但EFSA仍做出結論:由於花粉、花蜜、粉塵皆有與化學物質接觸的可能,這些殺蟲劑應只能使用在不會吸引蜜蜂的作物上。

在1月28日於布魯塞爾舉行的歐盟農業部會議上,衛生與消費者政策委員Tonio Borg宣布,考量到EFSA提出的報告中3種新菸鹼類殺蟲劑對蜜蜂的影響,他會做出「迅速且果斷的行動」。

Borg表示,他已經準備好訂立一個「有野心但同時兼顧各個層面的立法措施」。

1月31日在常委會討論殺蟲劑相關問題的會議上,執委會對27個會員國的政府提出下列5個提案:

  • 修改對3種化學物質的核准條件,由於粉塵在秋天較無影響力,因此這些殺蟲劑可以使用在冬季穀物和不吸引蜜蜂的作物上。
  • 禁止販賣與使用被含有這些化學物質的植物保護產品「改良過」之種子。但這項限制不適用於那些不會吸引蜜蜂的作物與冬季穀類。
  • 第一、二項措施最晚要在2013年7月1日前實行。這將不會影響到接下來玉米的播種期。
  • 2年後由執委會驗收上述兩個措施的實行成果。
  • 這些化學物質有限制的開放給專家使用,禁止販賣給一般人使用。

野生蜜蜂在義大利米蘭附近的花園裡築巢。(攝影:La Lince)Borg說明,「保護蜜蜂,不單單是對我們歐洲的農業,對我們整個生態系和環境也是非常重要的。」

2月7日執委會與食物鏈諮詢小組(包括農業協會和工業的利益相關者與相關NGO團體)將會討論接下來的行動。在25日,由歐盟各會員國組成的專家小組將會針對這些提案做出表決。

Borg辦公室表示,這些提案是針對「許多關心此議題的人民提出之要求」保護歐洲蜜蜂遠離殺蟲劑所作出的回應。

環保團體相當支持這些提案,但表示執委會做得還不夠。環保團體「殺蟲劑行動網」(Pesticide Action Network,PAN)歐洲總會提到,「這些提案的確能增進歐洲蜜蜂的健康,但仍無法保護蜜蜂與環境。」

「當時法國養蜂業者通報,在向日葵噴灑益達胺而導致蜜蜂族群大量消失,事件距今已19年,執委會終於將注意力轉向那些新菸鹼類殺蟲劑。我們PAN相當樂見這樣的發展,這也得感謝養蜂業者與環境NGO多年來所作的努力。」

PAN歐洲總會表示,「EFSA的報告指出,其中一項與新菸鹼類殺蟲劑相關的風險來自於在播種時所產生的粉塵,這個風險並不單純出現於吸引蜜蜂的植物上,而是存在於所有作物當中。」

團體警告蜜蜂可能受到有毒粉塵的汙染,或者這些受汙染的粉塵客能會在次汙染其他的作物、土壤、地表水和野生的花朵。

另外,組織指出執委會的提案並不能保護大黃蜂。

PAN歐洲總會說,「EFSA表示新菸鹼類殺蟲劑對大黃蜂及環境的影響尚不明確。」但他們也提出有研究顯示「這些化學物質對大黃蜂是有傷害的。」該組織提醒,持續在馬鈴薯等作物上使用新菸鹼類殺蟲劑將會對那些以其花粉為生的大黃蜂造成傷害。

「被新菸鹼類殺蟲劑顆粒污染了一年的土壤,將會在第二年殘留在吸引蜜蜂的作物當中,EFSA也承認化學物質對蜜蜂尚有未知的風險並未被執委會列入其提案當中。」PAN歐洲總會要求執委會對新菸鹼類殺蟲劑發出全面的禁用令,用提出預警的方式來保護蜜蜂和其它必要的昆蟲。

EU Prepares to Ban Three Pesticides Harmful to Bees
BRUSSELS, Belgium, February 1, 2013 (ENS)

Three pesticides that harm bees will be banned from application to flowering crops in Europe as of July 1, under new proposals issued by the European Commission.

"This hugely significant EU proposal promises a first, important step on the road to turning around the decline on our bees," said Friends of the Earth UK, which has been campaigning for a ban on these pesticides.

The three chemicals – clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam -  known as neonicotinoids, are among the most widely used insecticides in the world. They would be banned for use on corn, oil seed rape, sunflowers and other crops across the European Union for at least two years.

The EU has more than 2,500 species of wild bees, and one species, the honeybee, Apis mellifera, which has been domesticated and managed. But throughout Europe there is a severe decline in the numbers of wild bees and other pollinators as well as managed honeybees.

Pollinators contribute at least 22 billion euros each year to European agriculture, with 84 percent of crops needing insect pollination, and more than 80 percent of wild flowers requiring pollinators to reproduce, according to the European Commission.

On January 16, the European Food Safety Authority published three risk assessments on these chemicals, as requested by the European Commission in April 2012.

The risk assessments focused on three main routes of exposure: exposure from residues in nectar and pollen in the flowers of treated plants; exposure from dust produced during the sowing of treated seeds or application of granules; and exposure from residues in guttation fluid produced by treated plants.

While some assessments could not be completed for lack of data, the EFSA concluded that these pesticides should only be applied to crops not attractive to honey bees due to the risk of exposure from pollen, nectar and dust.

At a meeting of EU Agriculture Ministers in Brussels on Monday, European Commissioner for Health and Consumer Policy Tonio Borg, announced that considering the EFSA's report on the effects of the three neonicotinoids on bees, he would take "swift and decisive action."

Borg said he was ready to table a "set of ambitious, but proportionate legislative measures."

On Thursday, at a meeting of the Standing Committee on Pesticides, the Commission made five proposals for discussion with governments of the EU's 27 Member States:

1) Amend the conditions of approval of the three pesticides – clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiametoxam – in order to restrict the use only to crops not  attractive to bees and to winter cereals, as dust exposure during autumn is not considered a major issue.

2) Prohibit the sale and use of "seeds treated" with plant protection products containing these active substances. This provision will not apply to treated seeds of plants not attractive to bees and to treated seeds of winter cereals.

3) Measures 1 and 2 have to be implemented at the latest by July 1, 2013. This will not affect the forthcoming sowing season for corn.

4) Review both measures by the Commission after two years.

5) Restrict the use of these chemicals to professionals, prohibit sales for amateur uses.

"Protecting the health of our bee population is of great importance not only for our European agricultural sector but also for our ecosystem and environment as a whole," said Borg,

The next step will happen on February 7 when the Commission will meet the Advisory group of the Food Chain (which includes stakeholders such as agriculture associations and industry, as well as NGOs) to discuss the actions proposed by the Commission.

On February 25 a committee of experts from all EU countries will vote on the proposals.

Borg's office said these measures are being proposed in response to "a significant amount of requests from concerned citizens" about keeping European bees safe from pesticides.

Environmental groups praised the proposals but said did not go far enough. "It will surely improve honeybees' health across Europe," said Pesticide Action Network Europe, but "this is not enough to protect bees and the environment."

"Nineteen years after the first massive honeybee colony losses reported by beekeepers on imidacloprid-treated sunflower crops in France, the European Commission finally declared its intention to move concerning neonicotinoids. Pesticide Action Network Europe welcomes this big step in the good direction and this acknowledgment of the work carried out for many years by beekeepers organizations and environmentalist NGOs."

"The EFSA reports stated that one of the risks linked to neonicotinoids is based on dust production during sowing of the coated seeds. This risk is present for all crops, not only bee-attractive ones," PAN-Europe said.

The group warns that bees can be contaminated by toxic dust, or the contaminated dust can pollute other crops, soils, surface water or wild flowers.

And, the group says the Commission's proposals do not protect bumblebees.

"EFSA states that risk posed by neonicotinoids on bumblebees and the environment is not well known," said PAN-Europe. But the group points to studies that show "these chemicals have also harmful effects on bumblebees."

Maintaining the authorization to use neonicotinoids on crops such as potatoes will continue to harm bumblebees who feed on potatoes' pollen, the group warns.

Also, the group points out, "soils contaminated by granules of neonicotinoids one year can host bee-attractive crops the second year, and EFSA acknowledges there is an unknown risk to bees that Commission does not take into account in its proposal."

PAN-Europe is asking the Commission to propose a full ban on neonicotinoids to protect honeybees and other essential insects, by applying the precautionary principle.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS