歐盟提案全面禁用流刺網 有望明年實施 | 環境資訊中心

歐盟提案全面禁用流刺網 有望明年實施

2014年05月19日
摘譯自2014年5月14日ENS比利時,布魯塞爾報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

歐盟執委會14日提案,希望自2015年1月1日起,歐盟水域全面禁止使用所有形式的流刺網捕魚。

在地中海使用流刺網捕撈的非法漁船。(© Greenpeace/GParsons)

目前已經有禁止使用流刺網捕撈洄游鮪魚和劍魚的規定,但仍引起許多爭議,因為流刺網範圍可長達數十公里,往往捕捉到受歐盟保護的海洋哺乳動物、海龜和海鳥。

為了彌補目前禁令的不足,執委會提議全面禁止在歐盟水域使用流刺網,也禁止流刺網出現在漁船上。為避免模稜兩可的情況,執委會的提案進一步詳細定義了流刺網的形態。

過去有條件限制 法規未被遵守

歐盟漁船非法使用流刺網的情況層出不窮,引發許多批評歐盟國際義務遵循不周的聲浪。2002年起,所有尺寸的流刺網被禁用於捕捉高度洄游性的物種,如鮪魚和劍魚。2008年1月起,波羅的海全面禁止使用流刺網或將流刺網置於漁船上。

但執委會表示,儘管已經明文全面禁用,法規仍未被徹底遵守。目前歐盟的法規仍然有其漏洞,例如使用流刺網的小型漁船刻意分散在不同地區作業,增加監控和執法的困難度。

執委會說,除波羅的海外的歐盟水域,有至少840艘漁船使用流刺網。大部分漁船僅於一年當中特定幾個月使用流刺網,少部分漁船每年使用流刺網的時間少於半個月。

提案全面禁用流刺網 漁民仍有其他作業方式

不過,全面禁用流刺網並不會導致漁民減少。漁民可用其捕撈許可證授權的其他形式漁網。

2013年4月,執委會發表重新檢討歐盟流刺網管制措施的時間表,啟動兩個研究計畫和一次針對小規模流刺網捕撈作業的公眾諮詢會議。

執委會依照討論結果提出全面禁用提案,要求歐洲議會將提案入法、歐洲理事會通過該法案。

European Commission Wants Total Ban on Driftnet Fishing
BRUSSELS, Belgium, May 14, 2014 (ENS)

The European Commission today proposed to ban the use of any kind of driftnets for fishing in all EU waters as of January 1, 2015.

Rules are already in place to forbid using driftnets to catch migratory tuna and swordfish, but the practice continues to cause concern because the drifting nets can extend for tens of kilometers, catching marine mammals, sea turtles and sea birds protected under EU law.

To fight circumvention of the partial ban, the Commission proposes a full ban on driftnet fishing in EU waters and a ban on keeping driftnets aboard fishing vessels.

To avoid ambiguity, the Commission’s proposal refines the current definition of a driftnet.

Since 2002 all driftnets, no matter their size, have been prohibited in EU waters when intended for the capture of highly migratory species such as tuna and swordfish.

Still, the current EU legislation has shown weaknesses and loopholes.

The small fishing vessels involved in driftnet fishing do not operate together in the same areas, making it easier for lawbreakers to escape monitoring, control and proper enforcement.

The Commission says there are at least 840 vessels that use driftnets in EU waters, excluding the Baltic Sea. For most of the fishers driftnetting takes place during only a few months of fishing activity in any year with some fishers using driftnets for less than half a month per year.

So, the total prohibition on driftnets is not expected to result in a corresponding reduction of fishers. They will continue to operate with other types of gear as already authorized in their fishing licenses.

Illegal driftnet activities carried out by EU fishing vessels continue to be reported and have been cause of criticism regarding the European Union’s compliance with its international obligations.

In the Baltic Sea, the use of driftnets and the keeping on board of any kind of driftnets has been fully banned since January 2008.

Despite this entire regulatory framework now in place, the rules have not been respected, the Commission says.

In April 2013, the Commission published a Roadmap for review of the EU driftnet fisheries measures and launched two studies, as well as a public consultation on small-scale driftnet fisheries.

The result is the proposal announced today, which will require legislation by the European Parliament and adoption of that legislation by the European Council.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

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