南極海水檢出防曬油和化妝品 濃度不亞於大都市 | 台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心

南極海水檢出防曬油和化妝品 濃度不亞於大都市

2014年12月16日
摘譯自2014年12月10日ENS紐西蘭,基督城報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

紐西蘭一項新研究指出,南極海水中存在化妝品、肥皂和防曬油等個人清潔用品化學污染物,且含量跟許多大都市區域一樣多。

南極附近海域。(來源:Natalie Tapson)

個人清潔用品含新興汙染物

個人清潔用品中的活性成分是一種新興有機污染物(EOC),引起越來越多討論和研究。

紐西蘭坎特伯雷大學在南極研究基地排出的廢水中,發現這些化學物質。「新興有機污染物指的是環境中過去不例行性被監控的污染物,有可能傷害生態和人體健康。」研究主持人Sally Gaw博士說。

表面海水中出現新興污染物應受到國際關注,因為許多日常用品中的化學物質具有生物活性,可能對海洋生物有負面影響。「這些新興有機污染物也出現在南極沿海,而且濃度相當於都會區。問題是,這些污染物到底是如何在南極沿海散佈的。」研究作者Phil Emnet說。

廢水排放影響海洋環境

南極公約體系中的30個國家在南極有以季或年為單位的研究站。南極夏季期間,在南極大陸和附近島嶼執行科學研究的人員有約4,000人,冬季有約1,000人。除了這些長期研究站,還有約30個野外營地支援科學研究計畫。

Emnet認為,極端氣候等惡劣環境,可能導致個人清潔用品中的化學物質長期存在海水中。「因此,排放廢水對這類的海洋環境的衝擊可能高於過去所想像。」Emnet說。

Gaw說,南極生物對這些污染物的反應目前未知,「此研究後續將為南極研究計畫帶來更好的廢棄物管理和監控系統。」

此研究由紐西蘭南極局(Antarctica New Zealand)資助。紐西蘭政府1996年成立紐西蘭南極局,管理其南極相關利益和羅斯海,提供紐西蘭科學計畫物流支援。紐西蘭南極局的Neil Gilbert博士說,此研究展現國家研究計畫負責的態度,以最新的研究資訊幫助改善環境管理工作。

Sunscreens, Cosmetics Found in Antarctic Waters
CHRISTCHURCH, New Zealand, December 10, 2014 (ENS)

Polluting chemicals found in personal care products such as cosmetics, soaps and sunscreens has been discovered in waters off Antarctica at the same levels as many urban areas, according to new research from New Zealand.

A University of Canterbury research project has found the chemicals are present in sewage effluents discharged from Antarctic research bases.

Conducted by a Canterbury PhD student Phil Emnet under the supervision of Dr. Sally Gaw, in the university’s chemistry department, and by Professor Bryan Storey from Gateway Antarctica and Dr. Grant Northcott from Northcott Research Consultants, the study is published in the current issue of the “Journal of Environmental Research.”

“Emerging organic contaminants are contaminants that are not routinely monitored for in the environment and have the potential to have adverse ecological or human health effects,” said Dr. Gaw.

Active ingredients in personal care products are a class of emerging organic contaminants, or EOCs, increasingly being studied.

“These emerging contaminants were also found in Antarctic coastal waters at concentrations comparable to more urban areas elsewhere in the world, Emnet said.

“What was interesting was how widespread some of the EOCs were in the Antarctic coastal waters,” he said.

Thirty countries, all signatories to the Antarctic Treaty, operate seasonal and year-round research stations on the continent. The number of people performing and supporting scientific research on the continent and nearby islands varies from about 4,000 during the Antarctic summer season to 1,000 during winter.

In addition to these permanent stations, approximately 30 field camps are established each summer to support specific research projects.

Emnet suggests that the environmental conditions, including extreme cold, could have contributed to the persistence of some of the chemicals from their personal care products in seawater.

“Sewage discharges may therefore be having greater impacts over a much wider area in marine environments than previously thought,” he said.

The presence of these contaminants in surface waters is of international concern as many of these everyday chemicals are designed to be biologically active and may have adverse effects on marine organisms.

The vulnerability of Antarctic organisms to these contaminants has not been studied, Gaw said. “This study will lead to better waste management and monitoring systems being put in place for Antarctic research programs.”

The study was funded by Antarctica New Zealand, an institute set up by the New Zealand Government in 1996 to manage its interests in Antarctica and the Ross Sea. As well as providing logistics support to the New Zealand scientific program, it runs research bases such as Scott Base.

Antarctica New Zealand’s Dr. Neil Gilbert said the aim as a responsible national Antarctic program is to use the best available research knowledge to help improve environmental management practices.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS