掌握全球森林命運 民團評比5百大政商巨頭 | 環境資訊中心

掌握全球森林命運 民團評比5百大政商巨頭

2015年03月03日
摘譯自2015年2月11日ENS英國,牛津報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

「過去10年,全球的森林砍伐量和熱帶、亞熱帶森林砍伐量,分別有50%、60%來自糧食、飼料、燃料產品的全球生產。」

英國慈善組織、熱帶雨林智庫「全球林冠計畫」(Global Canopy Programme)指出,依目前的速度,熱帶森林到2020年將會被砍伐掉一半,2030年就會全部砍完。

道路明顯區分出巴西的雨林和耕作地。(來源:CIFOR)

500巨頭掌握全球森林命運

全球林冠計畫針對全球供應鏈中的500個實體進行評估和排名,包括總年度營收超過4兆5千億美元的250家企業、150間投資借款公司、50個國家與地區和其他50個具影響力的角色。

這500個實體──森林500──控制了全球複雜的主要森林風險產品供應鏈。森林風險產品包括大豆、棕櫚油、牛肉、皮革、木材、紙漿和紙張等。

來自於此的包裝商品,每年貿易額超過1千億美元,且出現在全球超過半數的超市貨架上。

良心企業不多 民團評比排名出爐

全球商品供應鏈驅動了全球熱帶雨林的砍伐,但其中只有少數企業組織能夠滿足需求而不破壞森林。

在10多個個政策指標上,森林500只有7個實體達到最高分,分別是達能集團(法國)、花王株式會社(日本)、雀巢(瑞士)、寶潔(美國)、利潔時集團(英國)、聯合利華(英國)和銀行及金融服務巨頭匯豐(英國)。

零分的公司有30家,多位於亞洲和中東,還有許多投資者。

全球林冠計畫表示,這份最新報告乃是根據嚴謹的方法學製作排名,蒐集來自公部門和私部門超過40,000個資料點。

熱帶雨林前景不佳 西方進口國無保護政策

森林砍伐和土地使用改變,將「貢獻」10%的全球溫室氣體排放,威脅區域水資源安全和全球超過10億人的生計。

森林500中的國家擁有近90%的全球熱帶雨林,也包辦過去10年間近90%的全球熱帶雨林砍伐量。其中,哥倫比亞、巴西、祕魯等拉美國家排名最高。

排名較低的國家有馬達加斯加,部分原因是2002年到2010年間森林消失速度非常快,還有奈及利亞,原因是森林政策和治理分數太低。

反觀森林商品進口國,如荷蘭和德國,最完善的森林政策多僅限於特定商品或是企業主導,而非政府主導。

另一個進口大國──中國佔了所有森林風險商品的22%,印度則是棕櫚油的主要進口者和消費者,兩國的分數都很低。

促林業轉型 5年內「零砍伐」

整體而言,有250間企業未能採取2020年轉型零森林砍伐的政策,不過個別企業有不錯的進步。

消費者家庭護理、個人護理產業表現最佳,動物飼料產業表現落後。

高營收的公司表現比低營收的公司好。公司營收一旦超過每年100億,政策分數就顯著增加,平均分數是年營收100億以下公司的兩倍。

公開上市公司的分數,則比私人公司和其他治理結構的公司高出50%。公司總部位置也是個重要指標,位於最高分的公司多在北美,比歐洲和拉美略佳,亞太地區公司多落後。

World’s Forests at the Mercy of Commodity Supply Chains
OXFORD, UK, February 11, 2015 (ENS)

Only a small minority of the power brokers controlling the global commodity supply chains that drive the world’s tropical deforestation are able to meet demand without destroying forests, finds the first ranking of these powerful players.

“Over the last decade, commodity production driven by global demand for food, feed and fuel products has been responsible for over 50 percent of deforestation and 60 percent of forest degradation in tropical and sutropical regions,” according to Global Canopy Programme, the UK charity that issued the ranking.

Now, a movement is afoot to cut tropical deforestation in half by 2020 and end it by 2030.

The Global Canopy Programme identified, assessed and ranked 250 companies, with total annual revenues in excess of US$4.5 trillion, 150 investors and lenders, 50 countries and regions, and 50 other influential actors in this space.

Together, these 500 entities – the Forest 500 – control the complex global supply chains of key “forest risk commodities” such as soya, palm oil, beef, leather, timber, pulp and paper.

With an annual trade value of more than US$100 billion, these commodities are found in over half of all packaged products on the world’s supermarket shelves.

Published in January, the ranking is based on a rigorous methodology and draws on over 40,000 data points from public and private sources, according to the Global Canopy Programme, a tropical forest think tank and UK charity.

Assessed against dozens of policy indicators, only seven of the Forest 500 scored the maximum number of points – companies Groupe Danone (France), Kao Corp. (Japan), Nestle S.A. (Switzerland), Procter & Gamble (USA) and Reckitt Benckiser Group (UK), Unilever (UK) and banking and financial services giant HSBC (UK).

At the other end of the scale, with zero points, are 30 companies, many based in Asia and the Middle East, and numerous investors.

Deforestation and land use change cause more than 10 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions, undermine regional water security, and threaten the livelihoods of at least one billion people worldwide,

The countries included in the Forest 500 represent nearly 90 percent of the world’s tropical forests and almost 90 percent of the tropical deforestation over the last decade.

Latin American countries, including Colombia, Brazil and Peru, ranked highest.

Lower scoring countries include Madagascar, in part due to its high forest loss between 2000 and 2012, and Nigeria, for its relatively low forest policy and governance scores.

The most developed forest policies in commodity importing countries, such as those in the Netherlands and Germany, tend to be commodity specific and industry led, rather than government initiated.

Crucial importing countries such as China, which is responsible for importing over 22 percent of the value of all forest risk commodities, and India, a key importer and consumer of palm oil, achieved low scores.

As a group, the 250 companies are falling short of adopting policies that ensure a speedy transition to a zero deforestation economy by 2020, but individual actors are making good progress.

The consumer-facing home care, and cosmetics and personal care industries are shown to perform best, whilst the animal feed industry lags behind other sectors.

Companies with higher revenues scored better than those with lower revenues. Once companies surpass annual revenues of US$10 billion, policy scores increase sharply, averaging nearly double that of companies below the $10 billion threshold.

Publicly-listed companies score more than 50 percent higher than privately-owned companies and those with other governance structures.

The location of company headquarters is found to be a key differentiator with the best scoring companies headquartered in North America, slightly outperforming those in Europe and Latin America, while companies in the Asia-Pacific region lag behind. 

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS